“mmWave = missing piece of the 5G puzzle” campaign objectives

Danny Tseng

mmwave-is-the-missing-piece-of-the-5g-puzzle - Qualcomm

Xiaomi. ZTE. Fibocom. Gongjing. MeiG. Quectel. Sunsea. Rest of Asia Pacific. Chunghwa Telecom. Singtel. True Corporation. Source: Press release: “Global ...

mmWave = missing piece of the 5G puzzle ...

mmWave = missing piece of the 5G puzzle” campaign objectives

Xiaomi. ZTE. Fibocom. Gongjing. MeiG. Quectel. Sunsea. Rest of Asia Pacific. Chunghwa Telecom. Singtel. True Corporation. Source: Press release: “Global ...

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Document DEVICE REPORTmmwave-is-the-missing-piece-of-the-5g-puzzle
October 2021

@QCOMResearch

Millimeter wave is the missing piece of the 5G puzzle
And the key enabler for the 5G future

Millimeter wave (mmWave)
is the key enabler for the 5G future Mobilizing mmWave
To deliver unparalleled 5G system capacity and customer experience
Deploying mmWave
To achieve great return-on-investment and set up for the 5G future
Evolving mmWave
To support new use cases and enhanced performance
2

New frontier of mobile broadband -- mobilizing mmWave for vast bandwidth

6 GHz

24 GHz

25x more bandwidth than what's

~

being used for 3G/4G

Sub-6 GHz (e.g., 3.5 GHz)

Millimeter wave (mmWave) (e.g., 26 GHz, 28 GHz, 39 GHz, 60 GHz)

~100 GHz

Multi-Gbps data rates With large bandwidths (100s of MHz)

Much more capacity With dense spatial reuse

Lower latency Bringing new opportunities
3

Rich media and entertainment for outdoor -- augmenting lower bands

More indoor capacity as outdoor mmWave offloads outdoor lower bands

Beyond smartphones -- e.g., smart manufacturing

Fiber-like broadband to the home -- fixed mmWave

Massive bandwidth for cloud computing

Virtually lag-less experiences -- e.g., multiplayer gaming

Dense indoor and outdoor connectivity for venues

New indoor opportunities --e.g., connected enterprises

Supporting new and enhanced mobile experiences

Fiber-like data speeds Low latency for real-time interactivity Massive capacity for unlimited data plans Lower cost-per-bit

4

accelerating globally

1B+
5G connections by 2023 -- 2 years faster than 4G

275+
Additional operators investing in 5G

175+
Operators with 5G commercially deployed

750M+
5G smartphones to ship in 2022

3.8B+
5G smartphones to ship between 2020 and 2024
1000+
5G designs launched or in development

Sources -- 5G commercial networks: operator public announcements. Operators investing in 5G: GSA, Oct 2020. 5G device shipment projections: Qualcomm internal estimates, Nov 2020. 2023 5G connections: avg of ABI (Jun 2020), Ericsson (Jun 2020) and GSMA Intelligence (Oct 2020). Cumulative 5G smartphone shipments ­ avg of CCS Insight (Sep 2020), CounterPoint Research (Sep 2020), IDC (Aug 2020), Strategy Analytics (Oct 2020).
5

5G smartphones

120+ 5G mmWave devices,
virtually all powered by Snapdragon® platform
Qualcomm Technologies continues to pave the way for 5G commercialization
Hotspots PCs

Modules

CPEs

Snapdragon is a product of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. and/or its subsidiaries.

* Source: GSA, Jun. '21. Includes pre-commercial and commercial devices. Complemented with

Qualcomm Technologies' data when chipset information was not available from GSA.

6

mmWave launched
mmWave spectrum allocated or in process

growing momentum

Sources: GSA June 2021; Qualcomm Technologies' review of public records, Sep. 2021

7

40+
Global mobile industry leaders commit to support 5G mmWave

United States
AT&T Casa Systems Motorola UScellular
Latin America
Telecom Argentina WEG

Europe
Deutsche Telekom Elisa Ericsson Fastweb HMD Global Nokia Orange Telia Finland TIM Vodafone

India
Airtel
Japan
KDDI Kyocera NTT DOCOMO Rakuten Mobile SoftBank

Korea
ETRI Informark Innowireless Partron Samsung Networks
Australia
NBN Optus Telstra

Mainland China
China Unicom Honor Oppo TCL vivo Xiaomi ZTE Fibocom Gongjing MeiG Quectel Sunsea

Rest of Asia Pacific
Chunghwa Telecom Singtel True Corporation

Source: Press release: "Global Mobile Industry Leaders Commit to Support 5G mmWave": https://www.qualcomm.com/news/releases/2021/06/28/global-mobile-industry-leaders-commit-support-5g-mmwave

8

Bringing new waves of opportunities
Creating value for the mobile ecosystem
Operators Service providers Venue owners Infra vendors Device OEMs

For outdoor deployments...
Significantly elevate today's mobile experiences -- initially focusing on smartphones
Deployments predominantly driven by mobile operators -- initially focusing on dense urban

For indoor deployments...
Complementing existing wireless services provided by Wi-Fi--also expanding to new device types
Bringing superior speeds and virtually unlimited capacity for enhanced experiences

9

Conducting 5G mmWave performance field tests

Tests in commercial network show 1 Gbps+ downlink sustained throughput in all scenarios

1,690

1,746

Near cell

1,281

Far cell

Mid cell
Imagery ©2020 Maxar Technologies, Sanborn, U.S. Geological Survey. Map data ©2020 Google

5G mmWave gNodeB

70
Far Cell

85

85

Mid Cell

Near Cell

Application layer Downlink Throughput
5G mmWave LTE
All units in Mbps

*Measured using Ookla SpeedTest

Image capture: Aug 2019 ©2020 Google

Throughput achieved*
1,821 Mbps downlink 96.9 Mbps uplink

386 meters LOS

Image capture: Jul 2019 ©2020 Google

Throughput achieved*
1,780 Mbps downlink 73.1 Mbps uplink

10

5G mmWave performance
* Based on analysis by Qualcomm of Ookla® Speedtest Intelligence® data top U.S providers comparing 5G median mmWave download speeds to sub-6GHz results for Q2 2021. Ookla trademarks used under license and reprinted with permission.

4G LTE
5G (Sub-6)
5G mmWave

38X
faster
than 4G LTE
19X
faster
than 5G (Sub-6)
11

Deploying mmWave
to prepare for the 5G future
12

Smartphones in dense urban deployment
Key factors Population density Demand growth 5G installed base Market share mmWave bandwidth
Source: "The economics of mmWave 5G," GSMA Intelligence, Jan. '21 (link)

Net present value (NPV) of total cost of ownership (TCO) for a 3.5 GHz plus mmWave 5G network
Base 100: 3.5 GHz-only TCO

100%

87%

78%

72%

100% 96% 65%

3.5 GHz-only TCO

Greater China

Connected users

5% 10% 25%

Europe
13

Superb monetization and ROI
From cost-effective deployment to monetization and new, incremental business potential, 5G mmWave can help drive growth and realize significant return on investment
Source: Bell Labs Consulting, Sep. `21. Analysis for typical UK operator. 1 Internal Rate of Return (IRR) over 4/8 years 2 Except fixed wireless access, for which the payback period is ~5 years

mmWave scenarios' relative value proposition

8%
Incremental annual revenue

20%
Average ROI1

258M+ USD
New opportunity per year with FWA and laptops

75% Savings
Cost/GB Savings for mmWave in hotspots compared to mid-band

94M+ USD
Monetization potential per year of `incremental traffic

<4 Years
Payback period2 assuming marginal revenues

14

mmWave + Sub-6 GHz
= Extreme capacity, multiGigabit 5G where it matters
mmWave + Open RAN
= Easily scalable, flexible,
high-performance 5G

mmWave + Fixed Wireless Access
= Fiber through the air for 5G-connected homes and more
DEPLOYING MMWAVE TO
Complete the 5G puzzle
mmWave + Sub-6 GHz + Standalone =
Critical infrastructure for industry 4.0 and more
15

Efficiently deploy 5G mmWave for a wide range of use cases

Fixed wireless access
Urban cities, suburban towns, rural villages
Indoor enterprises
Offices, auditoriums, manufacturing
Transportation hubs
Airports, train terminals, subway stations
Industrial IoT
Factories, warehouses, logistic hubs
Indoor /outdoor venues
Conventions, concerts, stadiums

Multi-Gigabit speeds with virtually unlimited capacity
Beyond smartphones, laptops, tablets, extended reality, ...
Leveraging existing Wi-Fi or cellular by co-siting
Flexible and efficient deployment with disaggregated RAN (e.g., O-RAN)

16

Testing 5G mobile mmWave for indoor enterprises
Using commercial equipment
Achieving significant coverage at 28 GHz1 · Single sector provides solid coverage in the lobby,
atrium, and part of the auditorium · Significant NLOS coverage behind the gNodeB,
including the 2nd and 3rd floor
Extreme capacity for enterprise use cases · Downlink median burst rate2 of 3.1 Gbps
Achieving Gigabit speeds even in NLOS
1 Coverage simulation based on MAPL (maximum allowable path loss) analysis with ray tracer propagation model and measured material and propagation loss; minimum 0.4/0.1 bps/Hz for downlink/uplink data and control; 2 Using 400 MHz DL bandwidth

View from gNodeB
28 GHz gNodeB 1-sector; ~20ft. height 400 MHz bandwidth

> -60.00 (0.0%)

> -70.00 (0.0%)

> -80.00 (10.0%)

> -90.00 (52.7%)

> -100.00 (63.4%)
> -110.00 (67.5%) > -115.00 (69.8%) > -120.00 (100.0%)

View from building entrance

17

Field testing 5G mmWave in a railway station
Deploying in 28 GHz (n257) with NSA option 3x using 2.1 GHz (B1) LTE anchor

mmWave gNodeB

mmWave gNodeB

3.6 Gbps
Peak downlink throughput with 800 MHz BW (8x CA)
271 Mbps
Peak downlink throughput with 200 MHz BW (2x CA)
18

5G mmWave antenna locations

On the overhang of upper level
100%
5G coverage on all 3 levels1

On extensions of speaker poles

On lighting structures

79
5G mmWave sectors2

59/45
5G/4G sectors in parking lot

5G vs. 4G downlink throughput
5G mmWave delivers >3 Gbps peak speed in several sectors

20x

18x

19x

1x
Level I

1x
Level II

1x
Level III

5G mmWave (600 MHz)

LTE (35 MHz)

Bringing massive capacity and new experiences to stadiums

1 above -97 dBm; 2 6x100 MHz carrier aggregation at 28 GHz; also 100 4G sectors in AWS/PCS /CBRS bands

19

Fixed wireless access use cases
Compelling solution offering broadband services to houses, small businesses, and enterprises.

Remote operation

Monitor and respond

Agile industry

Temporary and moveable

Synchronous collaboration

Power and speed
20

NA
9 Operators in 2 Countries
LATAM
2 Operators in 2 Countries

EU
36 Operators in 17 Countries
MEA
17 Operators in 8 Countries

Asia
16 Operators in 6 Countries

Sub-6
Sub-6 + mmWave (launched or scheduled)

SEA
9 Operators in 5 Countries

5G Fixed wireless access commercialization
moving into the mainstream

5G Fixed Wireless Access providers Countries

68 32

Sources: GSA--5G Market Snapshot Member Report--June 2020; Qualcomm estimates (2020 projection is at mid-point of guidance range), Nov. '19

21

Qualcomm® Fixed Wireless Access Platform drives 5G FWA adoption

U.S.A.
Configuration: Rural | 400 MHz | n261 | 46dBm
Qualcomm Fixed Wireless Access Platform is a product of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. and/or its subsidiaries.

Jun 2021

U.S. Cellular, Qualcomm, Nokia
~10 km ~1 Gbps
22

5G for Industry 4.0

Computer vision
Enhanced mobile broadband

Massive IoT

Head mounted display

Sensors

Handheld terminal
Ultra-reliable low-latency

Industrial Automated guided

robot

vehicle (AGV)

Wireless edge analytics

23

Boost 5G networks for
Industry 4.0 with the power of mmWave

Standalone Sub-6 GHz
CoMP: Coordinated multi-point

Ultra-high capacity Ultra-reliability with CoMP, dual connectivity, and network slicing Seamless mobility Low latency and edge compute Secure private networks Time sensitive networking (TSN) Public network fallback Precise positioning Broad range of devices for diverse applications

Critical applications
AR / VR Interactive collaboration Mobile robots Operations and security services
Real-time control for industrial IoT
Factory automation with wireless Ethernet and TSN Mission-critical industrial applications
24

Industrial handhelds

Immersive training

HD video surveillance

Precise indoor locationing

Guided execution

Automation & motion control

Mobile robots (e.g., AGV)

Mobile workstations

5G Smart Manufacturing
~4.8T
In global economic value by 2035

5G mmWave brings benefits to a broad set of industrial use cases

Inherently ultra-low latency Fiber-like data speeds Massive capacity Indoor / outdoor isolation

* The 5G Economy in a Post-COVID-19 Era ­ an independent study from IHS Markit, commissioned by Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.

Simple deployment
25

Deploying 5G mmWave in industrial settings (e.g., factories, warehouses) can deliver new classes of service and performance

Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs)
UHD video captured with edge AI processing for issues identification and surveillance
Low-latency and ultra-reliable control

Boundless Extended Reality (XR)
Next-generation human-machine interface Remote guided maintenance / repair Immersive hands-on training

Always-connected Laptops and Devices
Instant access to cloud compute / storage Immersive virtual telepresence Real-time collaboration
26

Collaborating with ecosystem leaders to deploy 5G mmWave smart factory
Initial use cases:
Automatic inspection of product lines via automated guided vehicle (AGV) and overhead transmission (OHT) -- 20 Mbps DL, 120 Mbps UL
Remote augmented reality for equipment troubleshooting, maintenance, and repair -- 25 Mbps DL, 25 Mbps UL
Immersive virtual/augmented reality for visitors of Green Technology Education Center -- 25 Mbps DL, 2.5 Mbps UL
1 With DL and UL bandwidth of 400 MHz and 200 MHz, respectively Source: https://ase.aseglobal.com/en/press_room/content/5g_smart_factory_en

~160 ft.

Factory manufacturing floor (~34,159 sq. ft.); 12 ft. ceiling height

Pillar Wall / Room Ceiling obs. Equipment AGV route OHT route

~213 ft.

Path loss (dB)
> -60.00
> -70.00
> -80.00 > -90.00
> -100.00
> -110.00 > -115.00 > -120.00

5G NR NSA network operating in 28 GHz band, achieving median throughput greater than 1.5 Gbps in DL and 120 Mbps in UL1

27

MWCB 2021

5G mmWave can support diverse use cases infactories of the future
Enhanced mobile broadband
· Smartphone and laptops · Boundless XR
Mission-critical services
· Industrial automation (e.g., robots)
Massive IoT
· Camera sensors

Proof-of-concept end-to-end system simulations

28

Evolving the 5G network

Traditional RAN
Combined baseband processing unit + Radio unit

Centralized RAN (C-RAN)
Centralized baseband processing unit

Virtual RAN (vRAN) + MEC
Virtualized baseband processing unit with disaggregation

Internet

Internet

Internet

Core hub

Backhaul

BBU RRadUio Cell site

BBU RRadUio Cell site

Core hub

Backhaul

C-RAN hubs BRBUU Fronthaul

RRadUio Cell site

RRadUio Cell site

Core hub

Backhaul

Edge data centers Open RAN interfaces

MEC vCore vCU
Midhaul DU

RRUU Fronthaul Cell site

RRUU Cell site

For better coordination, scalable capacity, faster deployments, lower latency, and new use cases

BBU: Baseband unit; DU: Distributed unit; vBBU: Virtual baseband unit; vCore: Virtual core network; vCU: Virtual central unit; MEC: Multi-access Edge Computing

29

5G Infrastructure Trends
vRAN, O-RAN, COTS

Traditional RAN

C-RAN

vRAN 2.0

Core

Core

Core

BBU L3
L2 NRT L2 RT L1 High

CU L3 L2 NRT
DU L2 RT L1 High

CU L3 L2 NRT
vDU L2 RT L1 High

RU L1 Low RFIC RFFE
Dedicated hardware

RU L1 Low RFIC RFFE
Virtualized­ running on GPP

RU L1 Low RFIC RFFE

O-RAN
Open interfaces between network elements (Core, Protocols, BB, RF)
vRAN
RAN virtualization with GPP
COTS
General Purpose Processors (GPP)
High Performance Products
Low-latency high-throughput operations Dedicated hardware accelerators
· Full RU implementation · L1 accelerators for vDU
Our Goal
Enable high performance vRAN products using open interfaces
30

Support different deployment scenarios

Place processing and analytics where it is needed Simplify orchestration

Higher utilization of scalable resources
Efficiently deploy new services

Resource pooling allows trunking gains and better cost and energy effectiveness
Rapidly scale virtual resources for additional capacity
Support lower end-to-end latency
Components can evolve and be upgraded separately Tailor dimensioning and features to suit the use case with 5G private networks

Deploy networks faster
with vRAN and disaggregation

Real Estate Savings

Reduce cell-site footprint by relocating disaggregated functions to data centers

Build RAN cost-effectively

Broaden the ecosystem for competition Vendor diversity spurs innovation

31

Build flexible, higher-performance 5G networks with O-RAN and mmWave

Edge cloud
RIC O-CU

O-DU
O-RRRUUU Cell site

F1 interface
CUS interface

O-DU
O-RRRUUU Cell site

Intelligent and flexible 5G mmWave deployments with O-RAN elements and interfaces
CU: Central unit; CUS: O-RAN Control, User and Synchronization plane; DU: Distributed unit; RIC: RAN intelligent controller

Accelerate 5G mmWave deployments
Broaden the ecosystem for vendor diversity Spur competitive innovation
Advance capabilities and performance with the O-RAN Radio Intelligent Controller (RIC)
Improve mmWave connectivity with RAN intelligence Train machine learning models at scale
Build denser networks
Disaggregate to reduce cell-site footprint Access more locations with a smaller footprint
Efficiently scale new bandwidth-intensive services
Evolve and upgrade components separately Rapidly scale virtual resources
32

Evolving mmWave in 3GPP Rel-16+
33

Advancing 5G to fulfill its full promise
Enhanced mobile experiences, new capabilities, and expansion to diverse verticals
34

Driving the 5G technology evolution in the new decade

Unified, future-proof platform
Rel-161 Rel-15

New verticals, deployments, use cases, spectrum
Rel-171

Longer-term evolution to deliver on the 5G vision
Rel-181

Rel-191

Rel-20+ evolution

2018

2019

2020

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

Rel-15 eMBB focus
· 5G NR foundation · Smartphones, FWA, PC · Expanding to venues,
enterprises

Rel-16 industry expansion
· eURLLC and TSN for IIoT · NR in unlicensed · 5G V2X sidelink multicast · In-band eMTC/NB-IoT · Positioning

Rel-17 continued expansion
· Lower complexity NR-Light · Higher precision positioning · Improved IIoT, V2X, IAB, and more...

Rel-18+ 5G-Advanced
· Next set of 5G releases (i.e., 18, 19, 20, ...)
· Potential projects in discussions · Rel-18 expected to start in 2022

1. 3GPP start date indicates approval of study package (study item->work item->specifications), previous release continues beyond start of next release with functional freezes and ASN.1

2027+
35

5G NR enhancements for mmWave

Completed Release 16 Projects
Integrated access and backhaul (IAB)
Enabling flexible deployment of small cells reusing spectrum and equipment for access and backhaul
Enhanced beam management
Improving latency, robustness and performance with full beam refinement and multi-antenna-panel beam support
Power saving features
Maximizing device sleep duration to improve power consumption as well as allowing faster link feedback
Dual connectivity optimization
Reducing device initial access latency and improving coverage when connected to multiple nodes
Positioning
Meeting initial accuracy requirements of 3m (indoor) to 10m (outdoors) for 80% of time

Release 17+ Projects
Improved IAB for distributed deployment
Introducing full duplex operations and mobile relays for improved capability, coverage, and QoS
Optimized coverage and beam management
Reducing overhead, enhancing performance (e.g., beam selection), improving coverage
Expanded spectrum support
Supporting licensed and unlicensed spectrum in frequencies ranging from 52.6 GHz to 71 GHz
New use cases beyond eMBB
Expanding mmWave support for sidelink, URLLC, and industrial IoT use cases (e.g., NR-Light)
Enhanced positioning
Enhancing capability for a wide range of use cases -- cm-level accuracy, lower latency, higher capacity

36

MWCB 2021
Delivering 5G mobile mmWave enhancements and new use cases
Smart 5G mmWave Repeaters
Improved coverage and service multiplexing with repeaters in LOS, NLOS, out-to-in scenarios using our 5G mmWave OTA test network
ML Enhanced mmWave Beam Prediction
Machine learning can further improve 5G mmWave robustness and efficiency, reducing overhead in our 5G mmWave OTA test network
Network Topology Optimization
Simplifying network planning with an ML-based approach, exploring performance/cost tradeoffs with different mmWave topology options
5G mmWave NR-Light IoT
Scaling 5G down for lower-complexity IoT, showing how mmWave NR-Light devices can make efficient use of 5G network resources
5G mmWave in Smart Factory
Simulating 5G mmWave to meet the diverse requirements in the factory of the future, ranging from high-performance to low-complexity
5G mmWave OTA prototypes 5G mmWave technology evolution
37

Innovating to pave the path to 6G

A unified connectivity fabric for this decade

Continued evolution

Rel-15 eMBB focus

Rel-16 and 17 expanding to new industries

Strong 5G momentum sets stage for global expansion

Next technology leap for new capabilities and efficiencies
Rel-18, 19. 20 and beyond Continued 5G proliferation
Historically 10 years between generations
38

Thank you
Follow us on: For more information, visit us at: www.qualcomm.com & www.qualcomm.com/blog

Nothing in these materials is an offer to sell any of the components or devices referenced herein.
©2018-2021 Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. and/or its affiliated companies. All Rights Reserved.
Qualcomm, FSM, and Snapdragon are trademarks or registered trademarks of Qualcomm Incorporated. Other products and brand names may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.

References in this presentation to "Qualcomm" may mean Qualcomm Incorporated, Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., and/or other subsidiaries or business units within the Qualcomm corporate structure, as applicable. Qualcomm Incorporated includes our licensing business, QTL, and the vast majority of our patent portfolio. Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., a subsidiary of Qualcomm Incorporated, operates, along with its subsidiaries, substantially all of our engineering, research and development functions, and substantially all of our products and services businesses, including our QCT semiconductor business.

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