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Document DEVICE REPORTpointe-bello-digital-silk-road-2019
JANUARY 2019
The Digital Silk Road Initiative:
Wiring Global IT and Telecommunications to Advance Beijing's Global Ambitions

Prepared and delivered on January 2019 to the Office of Commercial and Economic Analysis, USAF, under contract number GS00Q09BGD0050.
Pointe Bello is a strategic intelligence and advisory firm with offices in Dallas and Washington, DC.
pointebello.com

© 2019 Pointe Bello

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Contents
04 Executive Summary
06 DSR Implementation Structure
07 The Digital Silk Road: Beijing's Play for Global Digital and Telecommunications Power
07 Key Drivers of Beijing's DSR Initiative
09 Top PRC Organizations Lead All-ofGovernment Design and Implementation of DSR
15 Implementing DSR: The "Going-Out" of PRC Information Technology Companies, Standards
17 PRC Companies Integrating DSR into Global Strategies, Driving ICT Infrastructure Construction
19 Beijing Prioritizes Expansion of Fiber Optic Cable, Satellite Systems
24 Forming DSR Industry Alliances, Boosting PRC Government-Industry Coordination
26 Setting Standards, Altering the Competitive Landscape

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Contents (continued)
30 Case Study: Beijing Hands-on Guidance, Support of DSR--China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co. , Ltd.
41 Appendix A: Map and Table of Select DSR Projects
51 Appendix B: China Unicom Global Network Capabilities Map
52 Appendix C: Timeline of PRC Technical Standards Proliferation
55 Appendix D: Timeline of Selected DSRRelated Events and Announcements

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Executive Summary
The Digital Silk Road Initiative (DSR;  ) serves as a key pillar under Beijing's "One Belt, One Road" (OBOR; ) strategy by promoting the construction and interconnection of the People's Republic of China's (PRC) information and communications technology (ICT) globally.
Its overarching objectives parallel and reinforce other terminology in vernacular Chinese commonly used to describe the PRC's technology ambitions including "Information Silk Road" [], "Network Power" [ ],and "Science and Technology Power" [].
Bottom Line
}} Leveraging expanding global digitization and emerging technologies, the initiative--rolled out in a March 2015 multi-ministry white paper --provides PRC government and corporate entities a blueprint for aligning their activities with Beijing's aim to increase the PRC's position as a global ICT power.
}} Led by top state bodies such as the NDRC,MOFA,MOFCOM,MIIT,and CAC, the DSR's all-of-government design and implementation relies on the "going-out" of PRC ICT companies to take control of global ICT systems and standards and re-orient them to be reliant on PRC technology and digital domains.
}} The PRC's big three central state-owned telecommunications firms-- China Telecom, China Unicom, and China Mobile--play an important role in the development of OBOR by focusing on building transnational land and submarine cable systems, a key component of an integrated IT and communications technology system, which has become an urgent priority of Beijing's DSR initiative during the past three years.

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}} The emergence and development of Guangxi provincial state-owned enterprise (SOE) China-ASEAN Harbor Information Co.,Ltd.(CAIH; -- ) as a base for the slice of DSR facing Southeast Asia illustrates the critical role PRC government-controlled commercial entities play in implementing Beijing's DSR priorities.
Risk Implications
The dominant role that PRC entities have and will continue to play in DSR presents risks to global markets and political stability, as PRC companies often leverage preferential financing creating anti-competitive scenarios when completing infrastructure projects overseas. Furthermore, PRCbuilt and operated high-technology infrastructure such as fiber optic cables, navigation satellites,and smart cities likely grant Beijing firmer control over the global flow of data,enabling PRC entities to communicate more securely by evading U.S.' and allies' intelligence and law enforcement, obtaining sensitive proprietary information, and deny ICT access to U.S. and allied users when it serves Beijing's objectives to do so.

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DSR Implementation Structure

The below chart provides an overview of the guiding PRC policies and entities, which are covered in more detail in this report, that work to advance DSR. DSR is a pillar initiative of China's "One Belt, One Road" plan but it also serves to advance the PRC's Innovation Driven Development Strategy (IDDS), which looks to elevate China's innovation position in the world. These in turn provide the basis for DSR's implementation by key PRC government agencies,including the National Development Reform Commission (NDRC),Ministry of

Industry and Information Technology (MIIT), Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA), and the Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC).These agencies then relay the relevant guidance, standards, and financial support to ICT companies, both state-owned and private to include military contractors, to go out and actually build DSR through fiber optic, satellite, and other related projects worldwide. State-Industry Innovation Alliances (SIIAs) provide a platform for all of these actors to coordinate DSR efforts.

OBOR WHITE PAPER AND IDDS
CONCEPT/POLICY
NDRC/MOFA/CAC/MIIT MOFCOM AND PROVINCIAL
GOVERNMENTS
STANDARDS/GUIDANCE/ FINANCING

ICT COMPANIES

SIIAs

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The Digital Silk Road: Beijing's Play for Global Digital and Telecommunications Power

Key Drivers of Beijing's DSR Initiative
T HE DIGITAL SILK ROAD INITIATIVE (DSR; ) serves as a key pillar under Beijing's "One Belt, One Road" (OBOR; ) strategy aimed at expanding the PRC's control of global information and communications technology (ICT) through the construction of digital infrastructure globally. DSR encompasses ICT ranging from satellite communications and smart cities to fiber optic networks and e-commerce.While it has quickly become a catch all for advancing the overseas activities of PRC technology companies, its objectives go beyond opening markets and expanding trade.
}} The initiative, which dovetails with other key PRC strategies (e. g. Internet+), provides PRC government and corporate entities a blueprint for aligning their activities with Beijing's objectives to promote the PRC's role in the digital transformation of developed

and developing countries.1 It seeks to establish the PRC as a leader through expanding broadband access, upgrading the quality of digital technology and infrastructure, and increasing global connectivity to the PRC.2
}} DSR serves as the lead implementation mechanism of Beijing's efforts to become a global ICT leader. A speech by General Secretary Xi Jinping [] in April 2018 at the National Cybersecurity and Informatization Work Conference [
1 Official PRC government documents cast DSR as a means for assisting in the economic development of emerging economies. For example, see "One Belt, One Road Data View: Report says the level of informatization development along One Belt, One Road is uneven and that the "digital divide" has become a prominent issue in the "North-South Imbalance" problem ["": ""  """"]," State Information Center website, (April 18, 2018), accessed January 15, 2019 at http://www. sic. gov. cn/News/614/9735. htm
2 "Seven countries jointly launched initiatives to open a new chapter in `Digital Silk Road' cooperation [7  "" ]," China Belt and Road Network [], (December 4, 2017), accessed on November 28, 2018 at https://www. yidaiyilu. gov. cn/xwzx/ gnxw/38281. htm

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While rolled out under the OBOR initiative, DSR appears to also be one of the chief tools for implementing Beijing's broader vision of elevating the PRC's role in global innovation and information connectivity as captured in its Innovation Driven Development Strategy (IDDS;  ).

] in Beijing made the DSR the centerpiece of a clear strategy on improving the PRC's digital prowess by promoting China as a leader in the global digital economy and contributing to PRC-led international cyberspace governance.3
}} The DSR's underlying concept of constructing and improving digital infrastructure connectivity was included in the "Vision and Action to Promote the Construction of the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road" [ 21 ], hereinafter referred to as 2015 OBOR White Paper,calling for the "construction of cross-border optical cables and other communications trunk line networks" and improving satellite information passageways to create an "Information Silk Road. "4

by addressing legitimate digital infrastructure deficiencies across Asia,Africa, and the Middle East.6
While rolled out under the OBOR initiative, DSR appears to also be one of the chief tools for implementing Beijing's broader vision of elevating the PRC's role in global innovation and information connectivity as captured in its Innovation Driven Development Strategy (IDDS; ).7 For example, China's 13th Five-Year Plan [] outlines specific priorities for building and improving fiber optic networks and global telecommunications services, accelerating the deployment of PRC-built satellites, and promoting the development and application of next-generation information technologies (IT) such as fifth-generation (5G) mobile communications,cloud computing,autonomous operating systems, and artificial intelligence (AI).8

}} The May 2017 joint communique from the "Belt and Road Forum" also calls for promoting digital infrastructure connecting OBOR countries to "put in place an international infrastructure network over time. "5

}} IDDS is the keystone of China's technology policy under General Secretary Xi Jinping.It not only enshrines successful tools developed

}} Similar to its depiction of OBOR's broader infrastructure development activities, Beijing portrays DSR as leading the collaborative provision of global "public goods"
3 "International community actively discusses Xi Jinping's National Internet Work Conference Speech: Digital Silk Road gives "One Belt, One Road" new substance [   "" ]," People's Daily [], rehosted on the Belt and Road Portal [], (April 23, 2018), accessed on December 4, 2018 at https:// www. yidaiyilu. gov. cn/ghsl/hwksl/53698. htm
4 "Vision and Actions on Jointly Building Silk Road Economic Belt and 21-st Century Maritime Silk Road," National Development and Reform Commission website, (March 28, 2015), accessed on December 31, 2018 at http://en. ndrc. gov. cn/ newsrelease/201503/t20150330_669367. html
5 "Full text: Joint communique of leaders roundtable of Belt and Road forum," Xinhua News website, (May 15, 2017), accessed on December 31, 2018 at http://www. xinhuanet. com//english/2017-05/15/c_136286378. htm

6 Wang Xiaofeng [], "The Digital Silk Road and Collaborative Supply of Public Goods [ ]" Fudan International Relations Review [ ], (2015), Issue 16 pages 171-184, accessed on January 14, 2019 at http://www. cas. fudan. edu. cn/picture/2474. pdf and http://www. cas. fudan. edu. cn/view. php?id=2511 (Abstract: "The development momentum of the Digital Silk Road comes from the outward extension of China's development strategy and the objective needs of the development of the information society in the region. The construction of the Digital Silk Road puts forward the demand for regulatory public goods such as market openness and financing facilities in the field of information communication and networking, such as the development of public goods, information and network security, and other public goods and cyberspace governance concepts. At the current stage, China, as the sponsor of the initiative, should provide pilot support for the construction of the digital Silk Road, and at the same time promote the cooperation of large countries, regional cooperation platforms and inter-regional international mechanisms to supply public goods. ")
7 "Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council Release the Outline of the Innovation-Driven Development Strategy [ ( )]," Xinhua News Agency, (May 19, 2016), accessed on December 12, 2018 at http://www. xinhuanet. com/politics/2016-05/19/c_1118898033. htm
8 Section 25 of "Outline of the Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of the People's Republic of China [ ]," State Council of the People's Republic of China [], (March 17, 2016), accessed on November 30, 2018 at http://www. gov. cn/xinwen/2016-03/17/content_5054992. htm

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© 2019 Pointe Bello

through existing PRC science and technology programs but also advances new policy guidance to more effectively channel state capital supporting the acquisition of foreign technology and the "going out" of PRC information technology companies.
}} Other national industrial strategies such as the 13th Five-Year Plan on National Informatization [] and the National 13th Five-Year Plan for the Development of the Information and Communication Industry [] call for achieving systematic breakthroughs in "indigenously innovated core technologies" by 2020 and promoting the integration of information and communication industries to better position PRC Internet of Things (IoT) companies to compete globally, respectively.9

).10 These three State Council [] agencies along with the Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC;  ) and the Ministry of Industry and Information (MIIT; ), play leading roles in DSR implementation and promotion.11 At the same time,the elevation of OBOR and with it DSR to a national strategy has led many levels of PRC government, including local levels, and enterprises to take on leadership components of DSR.
}} NDRC maintains a principal and administrative role in the Leading Small Group for "Belt and Road" Construction Promotion [ " " ], the PRC State Council's main promotion and coordination office for OBOR related activities,judging by the personnel leading the Small Group and its General Office (see tables on next page).

Top PRC Organizations Lead All-of-Government Design and Implementation of DSR
T HE OVERARCHING CONCEPT OF DSR was publicly introduced in the 2015 policy paper "Vision and Action on Jointly Building the Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road" (2015 OBOR White Paper; [ 21]) jointly issued by the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC;  ), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA;  ) and Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM;
9 "Notice of the State Council on Printing and Distributing the National Informatization Plan of the 13th Five-Year Plan [  "" ]," State Council of the People's Republic of China [ ], (2016), accessed on December 11, 2018 at http:// www. gov. cn/zhengce/content/2016-12/27/content_5153411. htm; and "Information and Communication Industry Development Plan (2016-2020) [20162020]," Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the People's Republic of China [ ], (March 29, 2017), accessed on December 13, 2018 at http://netsecinfo. com/html/372951349. html

}} NDRC Director and Party Secretary He Lifeng [] acts as both a deputy head of the Leading Small Group as well as the Director of the Leading Small Group Office, which is housed within NDRC.12
10 "Vision and Action on Jointly Building the Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road [ 21]," NDRC [], MOFA [], MOFCOM [ ], issued by the State Council [], (March 2015), accessed on January 14, 2018 at http://www. mofcom. gov. cn/article/i/dxfw/jlyd/201601/20160101243342. shtml; and "China's `Belt and Road' Plan officially announced (full text) [ "" ]," State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China [], (May 4, 2016), accessed on December 12, 2018 at http://www. scio. gov. cn/xwfbh/yg/2/Document/1476317/1476317. htm; and English version available at: "Vision and Action on Jointly Building the Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road," Issued by the National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China with State Council authorization, (March 2015), accessed on December 12, 2018 at: http://en. ndrc. gov. cn/newsrelease/201503/ t20150330_669367. html
11 "State Council Departments []," The Central People' Government of the People's Republic of China [], (undated), accessed on December 4, 2018 at http://www. gov. cn/gjjg/2008-04/25/ content_7969. htm
12 "Belt and Road' Construction Promotion Leading Small Group convened an office director meeting [ ""  ]," National Development and Reform Commission [ ], (July 6, 2018), accessed on December 4, 2018 at http://www. ndrc. gov. cn/xwzx/xwfb/201808/ t20180828_896317. html

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Leadership of the Leading Small Group for "Belt and Road" Construction Promotion

POSITION Leader

NAME Han Zheng []

OTHER AFFILIATION Vice Premier

Deputy Head

Yang Jiechi []

State Councilor; Director of the Central Foreign Affairs Commission

Deputy Head

Hu Chunhua []

Vice Premier

Deputy Head

Xiao Jie []

Secretary-General of the State Council

Deputy Head

He Lifeng []

Director/Chairman of the NDRC

Leadership of the General Office of the Leading Small Group for "Belt and Road" Construction Promotion

POSITION Director

NAME He Lifeng []

OTHER AFFILIATION Director of the NDRC

Deputy Director

Qian Keming []

Vice Minister of Commerce

Deputy Director

Ning Jizhe []

Deputy Director of the NDRC; Director of National Bureau of Statistics

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© 2019 Pointe Bello

In addition to the Leading Small Group for Belt and Road Construction Promotion, NDRC's International Cooperation Center (ICC;  ) implements projects between the NDRC and other international organizations, enterprises, and foreign governments.13
}} ICC Director Huang Yong [] in June 2018 gave the keynote address at the China Urban Credit Construction Summit in Fuzhou where he discussed the significance of the ICC's Foreign Credit Identification System [], a big data platform that may allow the PRC government to assign credit ratings to foreign businesses based on their willingness to abide by PRC law, judging from the structure of Beijing's domestic Social Credit System.Yong noted that the Foreign Credit Identification System,alongside other PRC-built social credit monitoring systems, will gradually be applied to OBOR projects to assist both PRC and international organizations in assessing risk.14
}} NDRC's National Information Center [ ] is the PRC's national decision-making advisory body and national e-government service platform tasked with economic analysis, forecasting, and information and big data applications.15 It is responsible for providing macro-level decision-making support to the Communist Party Central Committee, the State Council,

NDRC,and other government departments at all levels.16 The center also maintains a database of DSR construction progress.17
MOFA continues to co-govern DSR-related foreign affairs and utilizes diplomatic relationships to promote DSR as a component of PRC diplomatic strategy, to include posting information technology attaches in embassies, and public diplomacy to create access for PRC entities working on DSR projects in foreign countries.18 MOFA representatives have participated in and organized events aimed at showcasing PRC companies and promoting PRC policies in key strategic nations, as evidenced by an October 2017 Silk Road Digital Interconnection Round Table in Rome, Italy.
}} The PRC Embassy in Rome participated in the Silk Road Digital Interconnection Round Table that brought together diplomatic leaders from Italy and the PRC,including the PRC Ambassador to Italy Li Ruiyu []. The meeting also convened representatives from large PRC firms such as Huawei, Tencent,
16 "Introduction to the National Information Center [ ]," National Information Center [], (undated), accessed on December 12, 2018 at http://www. sic. gov. cn/Column/94/0. htm

17 "Digital Silk Road Construction []," National Information Center's Big Data and Digital China [  ], (undated), accessed on December
12, 2018 at http://www. sic. gov. cn/Column/614/0. htm

13 "Introduction to the International Cooperation Center of the National Development and Reform Commission [ ]," International Cooperation Center of the National Development and Reform Commission, (undated), accessed on December 12, 2018 at http://www. icc-ndrc. org. cn/center_Profile. jsp
14 "Constructing a new pattern of `Belt and Road' credit work to create a digital silk road for the new era [ "" ]," International Cooperation Center [], (June 11, 2018), accessed on December 12, 2018 at http://www. icc-ndrc. org. cn/news_detail. jsp?id=600962
15 NDRC's Information Center is also referred to as the "National E-Government Extranet Management Center" [ ].

18 Chen Hui and Dong Jianjun, "Accelerating the Promotion of the One Belt, One Road Information and Communication Industry Going Out ["" ]," CAICT website, (November 14, 2018), accessed on January 9, 2018 at http://www. caict. ac. cn/kxyj/caictgd/201811/ t20181114_188712. htm; and "In 2017, the concept of "One Belt, One Road" is deeply rooted in the hearts of the people [2017 ""]," PRC official news agency Xinhua's SilkRoad website, (January 8, 2018), accessed on January 15, 2019 at http://silkroad. news. cn/2018/0108/78362. shtml. (Text: ". . . On December 18, 2017, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Commerce, the People's Bank of China, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the National Federation of Industry and Commerce issued the "Code of Conduct for Overseas Investment and Management of Private Enterprises", and carried out overseas investment and management of private enterprises from five aspects: improving the management system. Guide and specification. . . ")

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and Alibaba.19 Ambassador Li at the October 2017 roundtable stated that China and Italy should form a strategic partnership to collaborate on the development of new technologies and expand digital economic cooperation.20
}} At the roundtable,Lu Yiji [] Chairman of the Ministry of Civil Affairs-registered China-Europe Digital Association (ChinaEU;

)21 22 stressed that China and the European Union (EU) must collaborate to promote the development of next-generation technologies. Mr. Lu highlighted that companies such as Alibaba and Huawei are actively seeking new markets in Europe and aim to not only localize operations in Italy, but also present themselves as model examples of successful Sino-Italian cooperation.23

Mr. Lu highlighted that companies such as

Alibaba and Huawei are actively seeking

new markets in Europe and aim to not only

localize operations in Italy, but also present

themselves as model examples of successful
Sino-Italian cooperation.
19 "People from all walks of life in China and Italy: The Sino-Italian `Digital Silk Road' has broad prospects for construction [  "" ]," Economic Daily [], (October 30, 2017), accessed on December 12, 2018 at https://www. yidaiyilu. gov. cn/xwzx/ hwxw/32098. htm; and "The Embassy in Italy hosted the `Silk Road Digital Interconnection' Round Table [  " · " ]," Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China [ ], (October 26, 2017), accessed on December 12, 2018 at https://www. fmprc. gov. cn/web/zwbd_673032/ gzhd_673042/t1504740. shtml
20 "People from all walks of life in China and Italy: The Sino-Italian `Digital Silk Road' has broad prospects for construction [  "" ]," Economic Daily [], (October 30, 2017), accessed on December 12, 2018 at https://www. yidaiyilu. gov. cn/xwzx/ hwxw/32098. htm; and "The Embassy in Italy hosted the `Silk Road Digital Interconnection' Round Table [  " · " ]," Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China [ ], (October 26, 2017), accessed on December 12, 2018 at https://www. fmprc. gov. cn/web/zwbd_673032/gzhd_673042/ t1504740. shtml; and "New era, new opportunities, speeding up digital interconnection [ ]," Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China [], (October 26, 2017), accessed on December 13, 2018 at https://www. mfa. gov. cn/ web/dszlsjt_673036/ds_673038/t1504738. shtml

21 "China-EU Digital Association (ChinaEU) [ ]" China Internet Development Foundation [ ], (undated), accessed on January 15, 2019 at http://www. cidf. net/2015-11/10/c_1117090534. htm (Text: "The China-EU Digital Association (ChinaEU) is the first business-oriented China Europe International Association to promote strategic dialogue and high-level dialogue between industry leaders, financial institutions and senior government representatives in the ICT sector in China and Europe. Develop and implement a concrete and positive agenda through collaboration. ChinaEu has offices in Brussels and Beijing. The association aims to strengthen cooperation, trade and investment in digital products and services while promoting the establishment of common standards for ICT (information, communication, technology). ChinaEu is ICT's most advanced public-private partnership, connecting major members of the Internet industry in China and Europe, telecom operators, high-tech companies with Chinese government agencies, as well as senior EU officials and inspection agencies. It is also an incubator for project cooperation and digital entrepreneurship between Chinese and European companies. ")
22 "Introduction to the China Internet Development Foundation []," China Internet Development Foundation [], (undated), accessed on January 15, 2019 at http://www. cidf. net/jjhjj. htm (Text: ". . . The China Internet Development Foundation (CIDF) is a national public fundraising foundation approved by the State Council and registered with the Ministry of Civil Affairs . . . ")
23 "People from all walks of life in China and Italy: The Sino-Italian `Digital Silk Road' has broad prospects for construction [  "" ]," Economic Daily [], (October 30, 2017), accessed on December 12, 2018 at https://www. yidaiyilu. gov. cn/xwzx/ hwxw/32098. htm; and "The Embassy in Italy hosted the `Silk Road Digital Interconnection' Round Table [  " · " ]," Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China [ ], (October 26, 2017), accessed on December 12, 2018 at https://www. fmprc. gov. cn/web/zwbd_673032/ gzhd_673042/t1504740. shtml

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DSR Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs)
The chart below provides insight into MOUs signed between the PRC and foreign governments for cooperation on and participation in DSR activities.

YEAR 2016 2016, 2017 2016 2016, 2017 2016, 2017 2016 2016 2017 2017 2017 2017

COUNTRY Cyprus Serbia Poland Turkey Saudi Arabia Czech Republic Cuba Egypt Laos Thailand United Arab Emirates

Sources: Belt and Road Portal, Xinhua News Agency, People's Daily, National Development and Reform Commission

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MOFCOM promotes opportunities for PRC firms to trade and engage in e-commerce with foreign demand in strategic OBOR/DSR markets.
}} MOFCOM in conjunction with the Fujian Provincial Government in December 2018 hosted the "One Belt, One Road" Cross-Border E-Commerce International Cooperation Summit [""  ]. Deputy Director of MOFCOM's Foreign Trade Department Zhang Li noted at the event that Russia,the Middle East,South Asia, and Southeast Asia have become new growth points for PRC cross-border e-commerce companies.24

cross-border e-commerce innovation research report in Hangzhou,demonstrating the positive impacts and developments in China's e-commerce industry.According to MOFCOM, Hangzhou's foreign e-commerce transactions increased by 23. 8% from January to May of 2018, demonstrating how Hangzhou is working towards becoming a DSR hub city.25
}} Vice Minister of Commerce Qian Keming is heavily involved in matters relating to OBOR and DSR initiatives, having been active in promoting the economic benefits of the two initiatives at several domestic and international forums,according to official PRC media

}} MOFCOM's China Service Trade Guidance Network in June 2018 released the first

24 "Create a cross-border e-commerce `digital silk road' [  ""]," Economic Daily [] rehosted on PRC official government website [ ], (December 3, 2018), accessed on
December 13, 2018 at http://www. gov. cn/xinwen/2018-12/03/
content_5345311. htm

25 "The first `cross-border e-commerce innovation research report' was released in Hangzhou [ ]," China Service Trade Guidance Network [], (June 29, 2018), accessed on December 13, 2018 at http://tradeinservices. mofcom. gov.
cn/article/news/gnxw/201806/64258. html

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The CAC has shared a leading role in advocating PRC dominance in the global digital economy, as well as a need for increased PRC governance and management over cyberspace and global data.

reporting.26 He is concurrently the Deputy Director of the Leading Small Group for "Belt and Road" Construction Promotion Office.27
CAC leadership appears to have contributed to the conceptualization of DSR, judging by public statements surfacing as early as 2015. Since the initiative was laid out in 2015 and officially promoted by Xi Jinping in 2017, the CAC has shared a leading role in advocating PRC dominance in the global digital economy, as well as a need for increased PRC governance and management over cyberspace and global data.
}} CAC's then-chairman Lu Wei [] at the China-ASEAN Information Harbor Forum in September 2015 noted the increasing importance and power of digital economy to China's growth.28 Plans and accomplishments listed by Lu and others at the 2015 Forum include:29
}} PRC-proposed deepening of cyberspace cooperation and development with ASEAN;
26 "Speech by Vice Minister Qian Keming at the `Belt and Road' Forum in Tbilisi [ ""  ]," Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China: Vice Minister Qian Keming [ ], (November 28, 2017), accessed on December 13, 2018 at http://qiankeming. mofcom. gov. cn/ article/speeches/201712/20171202681184. shtml; and "The State Council Information Office held a five-year progress and outlook conference for the joint construction of the `Belt and Road' [ "" 5 ]," State Council Information Office [ ], (August 27, 2018), accessed on December 13, 2018 at http://www. scio. gov. cn/xwfbh/xwbfbh/wqfbh/37601/38866/ index. htm; and "China's five-year cargo trade volume along the Belt and Road initiative exceeds US$5 trillion [ ]," StateOwned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council [], (April 16, 2018), accessed on December 13, 2018 at http://www. sasac. gov. cn/n2588025/n2588119/c8870509/content. html
27 "The State Council Information Office held a five-year progress and outlook conference for the joint construction of the `Belt and Road' [ "" 5 ]," State Council Information Office [ ], (August 27, 2018), accessed on December 13, 2018 at http://www. scio. gov. cn/xwfbh/xwbfbh/ wqfbh/37601/38866/index. htm
28 "China-ASEAN Information Harbor Forum September 13-14, 2015," China Daily, (September 2015), accessed on December 11, 2018 at http://www. chinadaily. com. cn/business/informationharbor/index. html
29 "China-ASEAN Information Harbor Forum September 13-14, 2015," China Daily, (September 2015), accessed on December 11, 2018 at http://www. chinadaily. com. cn/business/informationharbor/index. html

}} China Unicom's construction of an overseas submarine cable link with Myanmar;
}} A special PRC government fund for internet and telecommunications infrastructure to link China to ASEAN;
}} The signing of a bilateral MoU on Cyberspace Cooperation and Development by the PRC and Laos; and
}} PRC-ASEAN talks on an upgraded version of the China-ASEAN Free Trade Area.
}} DSR appeared prominentlyin the title and text of a keynote presentation to the 15th China Online Media Forum in Zhanjiang, presented by the forum master of ceremonies Ren Xianliang [], then-deputy director of the National Internet Information Office (the CAC), which is mirrored by the CPC Office of the Central Cyberspace Affairs Commission.30
As discussed in the following section, in November 2018, MIIT's Science and Technology Department issued implementation guidance for the 2018-2020 standards action plan in support of OBOR.31 In the same month, senior researchers from MIIT's China Academy of Information and Communications Technology (CAICT) introduced a range of actions to accelerate the "going out" of PRC ICT firms and construction of DSR.32
30 "Ren Xianliang delivered a keynote speech: Building a `Digital Silk Road' [ " "]," China Daily [], (July 17, 2015), accessed on December 17, 2018 at http://forum2015. chinadaily. com. cn/2015-07/17/content_21308339. htm
31 See "industrial communications" implementation guidance for the 2018-2020 standards action plan in support of OBOR issued by the Science and Technology Department of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT): "Implementation Opinions of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology on the Harmonization of Industrial Communication Industry Standards in Service of Construction of the "Belt and Road" [ ""]," Key Work [] webpage of MIIT's official website, (November 12, 2018), accessed on January 10, 2019 at http:// www. miit. gov. cn/n1146290/n4388791/c6480447/content. html
32 Chen Hui and Dong Jianjun, "Accelerating the Promotion of the One Belt, One Road Information and Communication Industry Going Out ["" ]," CAICT website, (November 14, 2018), accessed on January 9, 2018 at http://www. caict. ac. cn/kxyj/caictgd/201811/ t20181114_188712. htm

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02

Implementing DSR: The "Going-Out" of PRC Information Technology Companies, Standards

Announcement of the September 2018 "Comprehensive Support for Developing Finance Cooperation Agreement" signed between NDRC and China Development Bank. Source: China News

U NDER THE GUIDANCE OF PRC government agencies and financial institutions, PRC telecommunications, Internet and advanced technology companies--whether central state-owned enterprises (SOEs), provincial SOEs, or otherwise--are leading forces advancing Beijing's DSR initiative.33 These entities' overseas activities are guided and enhanced by a growing suite of PRC government policy, diplomatic, and financial support measures, especially in key emerging markets where PRC companies are competing with Western ICT firms.
PRC government efforts to support DSR construction are ramping up and increasingly focused on driving progress in key sectors, such as telecommunications.PRC government agencies and financial institutions are introducing new policies to support PRC companies implement DSR initiatives.
}} NDRC and China Development Bank announced on 17 September 2018 the signing of the "Comprehensive Support for Developing the Digital Economy and Devel-

opmental Finance Cooperation Agreement" [ ] pledging over RMB 100 billion ($14. 57 billion) in investment over the next five years to support big data,IoT,cloud computing, construction of new smart cities, and overall DSR construction.34
}} In November 2018, senior CAICT researchers introduced a range of actions to accelerate the "going out" of PRC ICT firms and construction of DSR.35
}} Proposed actions include developing new assessment policies for PRC telecom companies (e. g. network layout and market share) and removing profit as a key indicator to encourage PRC firms to enter and occupy key
34 "NDRC and China Development Bank sign Comprehensive Support for Developing the Digital Economy and Developmental Finance Cooperation Agreement [  ]," PRC State Council website, (September 19, 2018), accessed on January 2, 2019 at http://www. gov. cn/xinwen/2018-09/19/content_5323492. htm

33 "Digital China Construction Development Report (2017) [ 2017]," Economic Daily [ ], (May 14, 2018), accessed on December 17, 2018 at
http://www. sohu. com/a/231552993_118392

35 Chen Hui and Dong Jianjun, "Accelerating the Promotion
of the One Belt, One Road Information and Communication Industry Going Out ["" ]," CAICT website, (November 14, 2018), accessed on January 9, 2018 at http://www. caict. ac. cn/kxyj/caictgd/201811/
t20181114_188712. htm

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markets as part of China's foreign strategy, especially where there is competition with Western countries to secure the dominant position in cyberspace.36
}} Additional measures outlined by CAICT include strengthening financial policy support for information and communication

industry overseas investments, strengthening government and industry level coordination, and adding more information technology officers at PRC embassy's around the world to incorporate the "going out" of PRC ICT companies into Beijing's diplomatic strategy.

CAICT Proposed Actions for Accelerating the "Going Out" of the ICT Industry

PROPOSED ACTIONS []

DESCRIPTION

Specialized assessment policy for overseas investment
of telecommunications industry [ ]

Establish new assessment indicators at the national strategic level for the "going out" of the telecom industry to include overseas network layout and market share and no longer assess profit; encourage enterprises to enter and occupy the market, even if it is difficult to achieve economic benefit, especially in the competition with Western countries for the dominant strategic position in cyberspace

Strengthen financial policy support for information and
communication industry overseas investments [ ]

Establish guidance funds to support the "going out" of telecom industry; tilt towards providing concessional loans to ICT construction, equipment manufacturing, and Internet application projects; support ICT companies to receive financing for foreign projects from international financial institutions such as AIIB, Silk Road Fund, and BRICS Bank

Strengthen government and industry level coordination []

Government to take the lead to unite enterprises, establish cross-industry coordination mechanism; build industry "going out" information database; promote cross-border construction of communication infrastructure and low cost and rapid construction of strategic facilities such as backbone fiber optic cables and submarine cable stations

Increase the number of information technology officers
in embassy commerce offices [ ]

Incorporate the ICT industry "going out" strategy into the PRC's diplomatic strategy; boost number of information technology officers in embassy commercial offices; collect information on host country's ICT industry

Source: CAICT

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36 Chen Hui and Dong Jianjun, "Accelerating the Promo-
tion of the One Belt, One Road Information and Communication Industry Going Out ["" ]," CAICT website, (November
14, 2018), accessed on January 9, 2018 at http://www.
caict. ac. cn/kxyj/caictgd/201811/t20181114_188712. htm (Original text:  ""    . )

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PRC state-owned telecommunication firms China Unicom, China Telecom, and China Mobile, as well as CITIC Telecom, are particularly active in DSR ICT projects, as are Internet giants Baidu, Alibaba, Huawei, and ZTE.

PRC Companies Integrating DSR into Global Strategies, Driving ICT Infrastructure Construction
P RC COMPANIES ARE IMPLEMENTING DSR priorities into their overseas strategies, constructing telecommunications, fiber optic networks, satellite, and other digital and telecommunications infrastructure in key OBOR regions and elsewhere around the world (see appendix A for map of select DSR projects worldwide).Many PRC-led M&A transactions also appear to be driven by efforts to secure access to ICT infrastructure and enhance network layouts in foreign countries. PRC state-owned telecommunication firms China Unicom, China Telecom, and China Mobile, as well as CITIC Telecom,are particularly active in DSR ICT projects, as are Internet giants Baidu, Alibaba, Huawei, and ZTE.

surveillance cameras to the Mauritian government,40 and leading research on 5G in Europe.41
}} According to PRC state media, OBOR countries are a priority for Alibaba's strategic development.42 A member of the Digital (Online) Silk Road International Industrial Alliance, which is discussed in more detail below, Alibaba promotes the construction of DSR through its "Global E-Commerce Platform" (eWTP),which has been launched in Kuala Lumpur and Hangzhou, as well as expansion of its logistics capabilities across OBOR countries.43
}} Alibaba has recently stepped up efforts in Russia,announcing the formation of a new social commerce joint venture with The Russian Direct Investment Fund--Russia's sovereign wealth fund--MegaoFon, and Mail.Ru to accelerate Russia's digital economy.44
}} DSR-related activities by ZTE include a smart city project in Bangladesh,45 a national optical backbone project in South Africa

}} Huawei press releases announcing partnerships with Deutsche Telekom and Finland's Cinia tout these projects' role in advancing DSR links.37 Huawei projects include constructing a fiber optic cable connecting Pakistan to Kenya via Djibouti38,a smart city project in Yanbu Saudi Arabia39 to deliver
37 "Huawei and Deutsche Telekom work on "Digital Silk Road," Deutsche Telekom website, (September 14, 2015), accessed on January 14, 2019 at https://www. telekom. com/en/media/ media-information/archive/huawei-and-deutsche-telekom-work-on--digital-silk-road--362052; and "Cinia selects Huawei to Build Direct Digital Silk Road between Asia and Europe," Huawei website, (March 16, 2016), accessed on January 14, 2019 at https://carrier. huawei. com/en/relevant-information/all-cloud-network/build-direct-digitalsilk-road
38 "PEACE Cable Project Enters into Cable and Material Manufacturing Stage," Huawei Technologies, (October 22, 2018), accessed on January 26, 2019 at https://www. huawei. com/ en/press-events/news/2018/10/huawei-peace-cable-project
39 "Yanbu: A Smart Industrial Oil Kingdom City," Huawei Technologies, (undated), accessed on January 26, 2019 at https://e. huawei. com/us/publications/global/ict_ insights/201708310903/manufacturing/201712061133

40 "Safe Mauritius, the Inspiration for Heaven," Huawei Technologies, (undated), accessed on January 26, 2019 at https://e. huawei. com/us/case-studies/global/2018/201807241004
41 "5G Europe," Huawei Technologies, (undated), accessed on January 26, 2019 at https://huawei. eu/focus/5g-europe
42 Wang Zhen [], Zhao Fuchun [], and Wang Yingbo [], "Experts: Developing the Digital Economy and Promoting the Development and Transformation of the Countries Related to the `Belt and Road' [  "" ]," People's Daily [ ] rehosted on the Belt and Road Portal [ ], (May 22, 2017), accessed on December 17, 2018 at https://www. yidaiyilu. gov. cn/ghsl/gnzjgd/14183. htm
43 "Alibaba promotes the construction of the `Digital Silk Road' [  ""]," Xinhua News [ ], (April 18, 2017), accessed on December 17, 2018 at http:// www. xinhuanet. com/world/2017-04/18/c_1120832453. htm
44 "RDIF, Alibaba Group, MegaFon, and Mail. Ru Group Launch New Social Commerce Joint Venture in Russia and the CIS," Megaon website, (September 11, 2018), accessed on January 15, 2019 at https://corp. megafon. com/investors/news/capital_market_releases/20180911-0936. html
45 Zhang Ying, "Transforming Dhaka into a Smart City," ZTE website, (undated), accessed on January 15, 2019 at https:// www. zte. com. cn/global/about/magazine/zte-technologies/2017/4/en_737/464727

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where ZTE was the sole supplier,46 as well as construction of fiber optic cables in Pakistan and Afghanistan, in cooperation with Huawei.47

}} Additionally, in December 2016, ZTE acquired a 48% stake in Turkish ICT systems integrator and software solutions firm Netas Telecommunications, a major architect in executing Turkey's digital priorities, strengthening "ZTE's ability to capture opportunities generated by the Chinese government's "One Belt, One Road" initiative. "48

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46 "FibreCo Builds a National Optical Backbone in South Africa," ZTE website, (undated), accessed on January 15, 2019 at https://www. zte. com. cn/global/cases/201305/397535
47 "Afghanistan and China Sign Optic Fiber Agreement," Regional Economic Cooperation Conference of Afghanistan website, (April 26, 2017), accessed on January 15, 2019 at http://recca. af/?p=2387; and "ZTE Broadens Digital Silk Road [""]," People's Daily, (May 18, 2017), accessed on January 15, 2019 at http://paper. people. com. cn/. . . /nw. D110000renmrb_20170518_3-13. htm

48 "ZTE to acquire 48% stake in Netas to support growth in Turkey and Eurasia," ZTE website, (December 6, 2016), accessed on January 15, 2019 at https://www. zte. com. cn/ global/about/press-center/news/20180600001/201807140 803/201612ma/1206

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Beijing Prioritizes Expansion of Fiber Optic Cable, Satellite Systems
P RC GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS AND A body of reporting in PRC media strongly indicate that cross-border fiber optic communications cable network construction by PRC telecom equipment firms--seen as a key component of an integrated IT and communications technology system to provide Beijing with greater global reach--has become an urgent DSR priority during the past three years. The development highlights PRC top leaders' recognition--which has strengthened and focused as the IT revolution unfolds--that digital collection, movement, and control of information are the wealth,currency,and medium of future economic and geostrategic power.
}} The first priority of DSR construction is to solve the problem of infrastructure connectivity, according to a 5 January 2017 report by the CAICT.49
}} The report points out that the 2015 OBOR White Paper calls for "jointly promoting the construction of communication trunk networks such as cross-border optical cables to improve international communication, interoperability level, and a smooth online Silk Road. "50
49 "Create `Online Silk Road' and Promote the Development of `One Belt, One Road'----Part Four of the Interpretation of `The National Informatization Plan of the 13th Five-Year Plan' [""""---- ""]," Website of the China Academy of Information and Communications Technology (CAICT) of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT), (January 5, 2017), accessed on January 7, 2019 at http://www. caict. ac. cn/kxyj/caictgd/201804/ t20180428_159428. htm

}} The same CAICT report calls for an acceleration of "the overall layout of overseas information infrastructure" to ". . . vigorously promote the interconnection and intercommunication with the national network infrastructures along OBOR and to provide a basic guarantee for extensive information and economic cooperation.51
}} The first priority actions are: 1) open the "Belt and Road" information channel,connecting the land information channels of Pakistan, Myanmar,and other countries to the Indian Ocean and Russia to Central and Eastern Europe and 2) promote the construction of submarine cables for the Americas, Europe, Southeast Asia and Africa, and improve the maritime information channel; 3) encourage enterprises to deploy application facilities such as data centers and cloud computing platforms in the node cities along the "Belt and Road."52
}} The second step is to accelerate the internationalization of the Beidou satellite navigation system and its application industry in conjunction with the OBOR countries, improve several Beidou overseas application demonstration projects, and enhance the international service capabilities of Beidou Navigation. "53
51 "Vision and Action on Jointly Building the Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road [ 21]," NDRC [], MOFA [], MOFCOM [ ], issued by the State Council [], (March 2015), accessed on January 14, 2018 at http://www. mofcom. gov. cn/article/i/dxfw/jlyd/201601/20160101243342. shtml
52 "Vision and Action on Jointly Building the Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road [ 21]," NDRC [], MOFA [], MOFCOM [ ], issued by the State Council [], (March 2015), accessed on January 14, 2018 at http://www. mofcom. gov. cn/article/i/dxfw/jlyd/201601/20160101243342. shtml

50 "Vision and Action on Jointly Building the Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road [ 21]," NDRC [], MOFA [], MOFCOM [ ], issued by the State Council [], (March 2015), accessed on January 14, 2018 at http://www.
mofcom. gov. cn/article/i/dxfw/jlyd/201601/20160101243342.
shtml

53 "Vision and Action on Jointly Building the Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road [ 21]," NDRC [], MOFA [], MOFCOM [ ], issued by the State Council [], (March 2015), accessed on January 14, 2018 at http://www.
mofcom. gov. cn/article/i/dxfw/jlyd/201601/20160101243342.
shtml

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PRC's Beidou Satellite System Going Global

The Beidou Satellite Navigation System [] serves as a PRC alternative to the United States' GPS system by supplying global positioning, satellite imagery, and digital infrastructure connectivity capabilities first to partner nations to enhance PRC global connectivity, with the ultimate goal of achieving worldwide deployment. According to an interview with Beidou government spokesperson Ran Chengqi [], Beijing in 2017 pledged to provide priority Beidou service to countries "along the Belt and Road" region.54

}} The Beidou system has already been deployed to Pakistan55 and Thailand56, and the first Beidou overseas center was inaugurated in Tunisia in April 2018.57 The PRC is also engaged in satellite collaborations to improve Beidou's interoperability with Russian,European and U. S. satellite systems and space technology.58
}} The Beidou Satellite Navigation System in December 2018 achieved basic global coverage with the launch of Beidou 3, according to PRC official media and government press releases. 59 The Beidou 3 system is expected to reach full global coverage in 2020.60

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54 "Beidou priority service offered to countries along the `Belt and Road' [ "" ]," Beidou official website, (December 6, 2017), accessed on January 25, 2019 at http://www.beidou.gov.cn/yw/xwzx/201712/ t20171207_6372.html
55 "China's `Beidou' has a good response in Pakistan [ " " ]," Military-Civilian Joint Promotion Department [], (November 2, 2012), accessed on January 25, 2019 at http://www.miit.gov. cn/n1146285/n1146352/n3054355/n3057613/n3057624/ c3613625/content.html; and Sabena Siddiqui, "Pakistan benefits from China's Sat-Nav system," China News, (May 23, 2017), accessed on January 25, 2019 at http://www.china.org. cn/business/2017-05/23/content_40873203.htm; and "Pakistan's reliance on US GPS ends as China's Beidou Navigation Satellite System has started to cover entire Pakistan," Times of Islamabad, (February 13, 2018), accessed on January 25, 2019 at https://timesofislamabad.com/13-Feb-2018/pakistans-reliance-on-us-gps-ends-as-china-s-beidou-navigationsatellite-system-has-started-to-cover-entire-pakistan; and "Pakistan becomes first nation to benefit from China's BeiDou system," Pakistan Today, (May 18, 2017), accessed on January 25, 2019 at https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2017/05/18/ pakistan-becomes-first-foreign-nation-to-benefit-from-chinas-beidou-system/
56 Li Ning [], "Beidou satellite application technology settled in Thailand []," People's Daily [], (March 31, 2013), accessed on January 25, 2019 at http://scitech.people.com. cn/n/2013/0331/c1007-20975471.html; and Li Ying [], "China's Beidou is expected to navigate for Thai fishing boats []," Xinhua News Agency [ ], (March 3, 2015),accessed on January 25, 2019 at http://www.xinhuanet.com//world/2015-03/03/c_1114508289. htm
57 "UniStrong fully supports the construction of the first overseas Beidou center to help Beidou spread around the world [  ]," X Beijing UniStrong Co. [ ], (March 3, 2015), accessed on January 25, 2019 at http://www.unistrong.com/news/NewsShow_2700.aspx

58 "Beidou Satellite Navigation System Development Report (Version 3.0) [3.0]," China Satellite Navigation System Management Office [ ], (December 2018), accessed on January 25, 2019 at http://www.beidou.gov.cn/xt/ gfxz/201812/P020181227529525428336.pdf
59 "The launch conference of the Beidou No. 3 basic system and provision of global services was held"\ [ ]," Beidou official website, (December 27, 2018), accessed on January 24, 2019 at http://beidou.gov.cn/yw/xwzx/201812/t20181227_16864. html
60 "Beidou Satellite Navigation System Development Report (Version 3.0) [3.0]," China Satellite Navigation System Management Office [ ], (December 2018), accessed on January 25, 2019 at http://www.beidou.gov.cn/xt/ gfxz/201812/P020181227529525428336.pdf

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Data from MIIT's Electronic Information Division indicate that as of late 2017 the PRC had 34 cross-border land cables and several international submarine cables in 12 countries along the "Belt and Road", which are directly connected to Asia, Africa, Europe, and other parts of the world.61 The PRC's three key central state-owned telecom operators (China Telecom, China Mobile, and China Unicom) play an important role in the development of OBOR by focusing on building multiple transnational land and submarine cable systems.62
}} China Telecom in 2017 planned to invest at least $1 billion over the coming 3-5 years to construct a major regional information highway interconnecting OBOR countries. This effort will focus on implementing three regional strategies and four key pilot projects.63

tegic channels, become the ICT leader in Eurasia,and complete construction of the Eurasian Information Silk Road.64
}} New Mekong River Strategy [ ]: Construct a pan-Asian information network, develop smart and informatization project opportunities, implement cross-border information operations, compete to be co-builder of a greater Mekong River "information society. "65
}} New Africa Strategy []: Focus on East and Northeast Africa. Develop, build,and operate major national informatization and smart city projects. Develop investment and M&A opportunities,boost Africa region to a new level of development. Goal is to become a major player

}} Greater Eurasia Strategy [ ]: Develop national information and smart city projects by opening key stra-
61 "China and Arab countries use the `Online Silk Road' to expand cooperation `E space' [" """], Xinhua News, (September 6, 2017), accessed on January 9, 2019 at http://www. xinhuanet. com/2017-09/06/c_1121617893. htm
62 "'Belt and Road' International Cooperation Summit: Building a 21st Century Digital Silk Road ["" 21]," Official website of "Communication Industry News" [], a publication managed by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT), (May 14, 2017), accessed on January 9, 2019 at http://www. ccidcom. com/yaowen/20170514/ JVD3TBNiX8LHuWL6Y14vrtfkrbvdg. html.
Note that collaborating/partnering entities listed on the homepage of "Communication Industry News", include China Telecom, China Mobile, China Unicom, China Tower ( ), Huawei, ZTE, Intel, FiberHome, YOFC, Trigiant, NNO, Qualcomm, HBC, as accessed on January 9, 2019 at http:// www. ccidcom. com/
63 "China Telecom's "One Belt, One Road" Plan: Investing $1 billion to Build Information Silk Road [" "10""]," People's Daily website, (April 26, 2017), accessed on January 9, 2019 at http://tc. people. com. cn/n1/2017/0426/c183008-29237851. html; and "China Telecom Practices One Belt, One Road; Global Layout and Construction of the Information Silk Road [""" "]," China Telecom website, (May 11, 2017), accessed on January 9, 2019 at http://www. chinatelecom. com. cn/ news/06/ydyl/xw/201706/t20170621_33927. html

64 "China Telecom's "One Belt, One Road" Plan: Investing $1 billion to Build Information Silk Road [" "10""]," People's Daily website, (April 26, 2017), accessed on January 9, 2019 at http://tc. people. com. cn/n1/2017/0426/c183008-29237851. html; and "China Telecom Practices One Belt, One Road; Global Layout and Construction of the Information Silk Road ["" ""]," China Telecom website, (May 11, 2017), accessed on January 9, 2019 at http://www. chinatelecom. com. cn/news/06/ydyl/xw/201706/t20170621_33927. html (Original text:   ). Plans to construct a Eurasian Information Silk Road appear to have been outlined by China Telecom around 2006, when it set up China Telecom (Europe) Co. in London. The Eurasian Information Silk Road includes the Euro-Asia Network Solution consisting of six fiber optic terrestrial cables and interconnected POPs from Asia to Europe. The land line was constructed in cooperation with Russian telecom operators. See "Euro-Asia Network Solution," China Telecom Europe website, (undated), accessed on January 10, 2019 at http:// cteurope. net/wp-content/uploads/ChinaTelecom_EuroAsia-network-solution. pdf; and Sun Yaping, "Building the Eurasian Information Silk Road" [ ], China Radio International website, (October 17, 2011), accessed on January 10, 2019 at http://news. cri. cn/gb/2782 4/2011/10/17/110s3404654. htm
65 "China Telecom's "One Belt, One Road" Plan: Investing $1 billion to Build Information Silk Road [" "10""]," People's Daily website, (April 26, 2017), accessed on January 9, 2019 at http://tc. people. com. cn/n1/2017/0426/c183008-29237851. html; and "China Telecom Practices One Belt, One Road; Global Layout and Construction of the Information Silk Road ["" ""]," China Telecom website, (May 11, 2017), accessed on January 9, 2019 at http://www. chinatelecom. com. cn/news/06/ydyl/xw/201706/t20170621_33927. html (Original text:   )

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The PRC's three key central stateowned telecom operators (China Telecom, China Mobile and China Unicom) play an important role in the development of OBOR by focusing on building multiple transnational land and submarine cable systems.

in the Africa informatization process, construct strategic routes between Africa, Europe, and America, and build East and Northeast Africa network backbone.66
China Unicom [ ] reported 4 April 2018 that it implements "national strategic measures such as network superpower and the "Belt and Road" initiative. "67 In August 2016, China Unicom unveiled its Global Center in Hong Kong, the first and largest overseas integrated telecommunications facility to function "as an important information infrastructure hub of "One Belt One Road".68
}} The Global Center, through the "Suigang Land Cable Transmission System", connects to China's backbone network and through the Asia-America Gateway Cable System. It also connects to the Asia Pacific Gateway, Asia Africa Europe-1, and other submarine cables systems linking to North America, Europe,Africa,the Middle East,and Southeast Asia, according to the August 2016 report.69
}} The same report said that China Unicom is constructing both land and submarine cable systems to expand its network layout
66 "China Telecom's "One Belt, One Road" Plan: Investing $1 billion to Build Information Silk Road [" "10""]," People's Daily website, (April 26, 2017), accessed on January 9, 2019 at http://tc. people. com. cn/n1/2017/0426/c183008-29237851. html; and "China Telecom Practices One Belt, One Road; Global Layout and Construction of the Information Silk Road ["" ""]," China Telecom website, (May 11, 2017), accessed on January 9, 2019 at http://www. chinatelecom. com. cn/news/06/ydyl/xw/201706/t20170621_33927. html (Original text:     )
67 "Annual Report 2017" China Unicom, Hong Kong Stock Exchange, (April 4, 2018), accessed on January 14, 2019 at http://www3. hkexnews. hk/listedco/listconews/ SEHK/2018/0404/LTN201804041065. pdf
68 "China Unicom (Hong Kong) Global Center Grand Opening," China Unicom website, (August 16, 2016), accessed on January 14, 2019 at http://www. chinaunicom. com. sg/ news-detail/7/
69 "China Unicom (Hong Kong) Global Center Grand Opening," China Unicom website, (August 16, 2016), accessed on January 14, 2019 at http://www. chinaunicom. com. sg/ news-detail/7/

across OBOR countries. It is building its own China-Myanmar international land cable system around the economic corridors of China-Southeast Asia-India-Myanmar and expanding cable capacity along the China-Mongolia-Russia-Europe cable circuit. Along the coast, China Unicom initiated the construction of Asia-Africa Europe No. 1 submarine cable with 19 countries and cooperated with developers of the Southeast Asia-Middle East-Western Europe No. 5 submarine cable.70 (See Appendix B: China Unicom Global Network Capabilities Map)
China Mobile71 has built a global communications infrastructure network system, actively promoted the construction of key projects such as cross-border optical cables,and plans to build new submarine cables and new international communications business gateways in Asia, Europe, and the United States.72
}} China Mobile in a May 2017 report described its role in the construction of telecommunications infrastructure and cross-border land and submarine fiber optic cables, as well as its acquisition of telecommunications companies in Pakistan and Thailand, to highlight its efforts towards creating an "information and economic corridor. "73
70 "'Belt and Road' International Cooperation Summit: Building a 21st Century Digital Silk Road ["" 21]," Official website of "Communication Industry News" [], a publication managed by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT), (May 14, 2017), accessed on January 9, 2019 at http://www. ccidcom. com/yaowen/20170514/ JVD3TBNiX8LHuWL6Y14vrtfkrbvdg. html.
71 China Mobile is listed number 24 on the directory of central state-owned enterprises administered by the State Coun cil's State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission (SASAC [ ]) as observed 17 December 2018 at root URL: http://www. sasac. gov. cn
72 "Briefing on China Mobile's Participation in Jointly Building the "Belt and Road," China Mobile Communications Corporation, (May 8, 2017), accessed on December 17, 2018 at http:// www. china. com. cn/zhibo/zhuanti/ch-xinwen/2017-05/08/ content_40767089. htm
73 "Briefing on China Mobile's Participation in Jointly Building the "Belt and Road," China Mobile Communications Corporation, (May 8, 2017), accessed on December 17, 2018 at http:// www. china. com. cn/zhibo/zhuanti/ch-xinwen/2017-05/08/ content_40767089. htm

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}} In April 2017,China Mobile announced it was lowering roaming charges for OBOR countries,which would "facilitate Chinese enterprises' investment and construction along the Belt and Road. "74
Other PRC telecommunications companies are also involved in improving ICT interconnectivity among OBOR countries and beyond. For example, CITIC Telecom, a subsidiary of stateowned investment firm CITIC Group [ ],75 in 2017 acquired Netherlands-based Linx Telecommunications becoming "one of the first Asian ICT service provider to own PoPs with extensive coverage in countries along with "One Belt One Road" route" providing "a firstmover advantage in "Digital Silk Road"" and foundation for seizing opportunities in Russia, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia.76
}} Beginning as early as March 2016, PRC based Kuang-Chi Group-connected HyalRoute Communications Group [HyalRoute; ]77, a leading provider of
74 Meng Jie, "China Mobile to cut roaming charges along Belt and Road," Xinhua News, (April 26, 2017), accessed on January 14, 2019 at http://www. xinhuanet. com/english/201704/26/c_136238169. htm
75 CITIC Group is controlled by the Ministry of Finance of the People's Republic of China.
76 "Annual Report 2017," CITIC Telecommunications International Holdings Limits, Hong Kong Stock Exchange, (March 28, 2018), accessed on January 13, 2019 at http:// www3. hkexnews. hk/listedco/listconews/SEHK/2018/0328/ LTN20180328660. pdf. Following the acquisition, Linx Telecommunications was consolidated into CPC Europe Group whose virtual private network services, TrueCONNECT MPLS VPN covers more than 130 countries and regions.
77 HyalRoute is a member of Shenzhen-based Kuang-Chi Group's "Global Community of Innovation. " A military-civil fusion enterprise, Kuang-Chi supports PLA RD&A programs, including programs on stealth materials and near space ISR.

ICT infrastructure in Asia Pacific, initiated agreements leading to it constructing and operating nationwide fiber optic networks in both Myanmar and Cambodia.78
}} According to the company and CAICT, HyalRoute's work "serves" China's "One Belt,One Road" initiative and is an important part of building a 21st century digital silk road as the company pursues the construction of an international fiber-optic network spanning more than 1 million km linking 50 countries.79
Highlighting Beijing's geostrategic power objectives, PRC undersea technology equipment and defense contractor Zhongtian Technology Submarine Cable Co. ("ZTT";  )80 touts its contribution to Military-Civil Fusion (MCF) objectives, according to a 19 May 2017 report posted on the official
78 "Cambodia grants rights to Chinese firm to build submarine cables, landing station," People's Daily, (March 2, 2016), accessed on January 25, 2019 at http://en. people. cn/ n3/2016/0302/c90883-9024154. html; and "Government signs $70m deal for submarine internet cable," The Cambodian Daily, (March 3, 2016), accessed on January 25, 2019 at https://www. cambodiadaily. com/news/governmentsigns-70m-deal-for-submarine-internet-cable-109325/; and "Cambodia signs US$70 million deal of submarine cable construction," Agence Kampuchea Presse (AKP), (March 4, 2016), accessed on January 25, 2019 at http://www. akp. gov. kh/wp-content/uploads/wp-post-to-pdf-cache/1/cambodia-signs-us70-million-deal-of-submarine-cable-construction. pdf; and "World Bank's MIGA backs $100m, 4,500km fibre optic rollout," Frontier Myanmar, (January 31, 2017), accessed on January 25, 2019 at https://frontiermyanmar. net/en/world-banks-miga-backs-100m-4500km-fibre-opticrollout; and "HyalRoute Fiber Optic Cable Network," Private Participation in Infrastructure Database," The World Bank, (2017), accessed on January 25, 2019 at https://ppi. worldbank. org/snapshots/project/HyalRoute-Fiber-Optic-Cable-Network-9164
79 Xin Xing and Yao Jinzhou, "In the 21st Century Digital Silk Road, Private Companies Have a lot to Offer [21 ]," CAICT website, (November 14, 2018), accessed January 13, 2019 at http://www. caict. ac. cn/kxyj/caictgd/201811/t20181114_188713. htm ; and "KuangChi Science Announces Singapore-Based Innovation HQ," Kuang-Chi press release via PRNewswire, (May 31, 2016), accessed on January 25, 2019 at https://www. prnewswire. com/news-releases/kuangchi-science-announces-singapore-based-innovation-hq-300276731. html
80 ZTT is a National Torch Program key high-tech enterprise [ ] located in the national level Nantong Economic and Technology Development Zone. It also leads the 863 Programs on deep sea ROVs [ROV] and armored cables []. See company website at: http://zthl. chinaztt. cn/

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Other PRC telecommunications companies are also involved in improving ICT interconnectivity among OBOR countries and beyond.

website of MIIT-managed publication "Communication Industry News. "81
}} ZTT has participated in the construction of all underwater observation networks in China and specializes in underwater network design,equipment manufacturing,construction and maintenance.82
}} The company's deep-sea cable expertise has been successfully applied to China's first domestically-made relayed submarine cable. The communication system reportedly has been running stably for more than a year,providing a strong guarantee for instant defense communications.83
General Secretary Xi Jinping during a 3 July 2017 visit to Moscow said that China and Russia are actively promoting construction of "One Belt, One Road," in cooperation with the Eurasian Economic Union,and that both sides will jointly develop and utilize Arctic waterways to create an "Ice Silk Road []. "84 DSR is driving PRC expansion into the Arctic according to a 7 February 2018 report posted on Xinhua
81 "Zhongtian Technology advances into the 10,000-meter deep-sea area []," Official website of "Communication Industry News" [ ], a publication managed by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT)], (May 19, 2017), accessed on January 9, 2019 at http://www. ccidcom. com/ company/20170519/yW3WLEFRayB7zkn7y14w6vmp6cfn8. html

Silkroad, an OBOR-focused website managed by the PRC's official wire service Xinhua, and attributed to the "Australian Roy International Policy Institute."85
Forming DSR Industry Alliances, Boosting PRC Government-Industry Coordination
D URING 2017-2018, BEIJING ENCOURaged the formation of state-industry innovation alliances (SIIAs, aka industrial innovation alliances;  ) within key target sectors to bolster its Innovation Driven Development Strategy,providing a platform for government departments,scientific research institutes, academia, military industrial groups, SOEs, and private enterprises to interface in the PRC. SIIAs also facilitate overseas collaboration towards the rapid development of targeted technology sectors and state security and military-civilian fusion applications, jointly improving industry-related norms and standards and encouraging and aligning sectoral investment with Beijing's objectives. Similar alliances are being formed to advance DSR and include both PRC and foreign companies.

82 "Zhongtian Technology advances into the 10,000-meter deep-sea area []," Official website of "Communication Industry News" [ ], a publication managed by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT)], (May 19, 2017),
accessed on January 9, 2019 at http://www. ccidcom. com/
company/20170519/yW3WLEFRayB7zkn7y14w6vmp6cfn8.
html

}} In November 2017,Inspur Group,a PRC cloud computing and big data services provider, along with Cisco, IBM, Diebold Nixdorf, and Ericsson, formed the "One Belt, One Road"

83 "Zhongtian Technology advances into the 10,000-meter deep-sea area []," Official website of "Communication Industry News" [ ], a publication managed by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT)], (May 19, 2017),
accessed on January 9, 2019 at http://www. ccidcom. com/
company/20170519/yW3WLEFRayB7zkn7y14w6vmp6cfn8.
html

84 "July 4, 2017: Xi Jinping: Creating the "Ice Silk Road [2017 74""]," Belt
and Road Portal, (July 4, 2017), accessed on January 14,
2019 at https://www. yidaiyilu. gov. cn/slxwzy/20751. htm. (Original text: " "   "")

85 "Arctic submarine cable to build data `Silk Road'[ ""]," Xinhua Silkroad (, an OBOR-focused website managed by the PRC's official wire service Xinhua) attributed to the Australian Roy International Policy Institute, (February 7, 2018), accessed on January 7, 2019 at http://silkroad. news. cn/2018/0207/83602. shtml

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November 2017 launch ceremony for the "One Belt, One Road" Digital Economy Strategic Alliance Source: China News

Digital Economy Strategic Alliance [" "] in the Inspur Jinan Science and Technology Park.86
}} The OBOR Digital Economy Strategic Alliance aims to form an integrated global technology and financial resources platform to deliver IT construction and capital to OBOR countries. The members plan to set up joint products and solutions and initially focus on providing "data center + cloud services," as well as integrated technology solutions such as smart cities in Thailand,Bangladesh, Malaysia, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Tunisia, Tanzania, Zambia, and Kenya to create a series of model projects.87
}} China Exim Bank [],China Development Bank[],and China Export Credit Insurance Corporation [] are providing financial support to the alliance.88
Zhejiang province is also coordinating DSR priorities among provincial commercial entities,offering another example of how alliances enable PRC government actors, state financial institutions,and companies to coordinate their activities to advance national priorities around developing the digital economy. The Zhejiang Provincial Government, under direction from the NDRC National Internet Information Office,in September 2018 established the Digital (Online) Silk Road International Industrial Alliance ("DSR Industrial Alliance;"  ) to serve as a mecha-

nism for jointly "promoting the development of the digital economy,constructing the digital silk road, and promoting the digital economy between OBOR countries. "89
}} The DSR Industrial Alliance was formed during the first "International Conference on Digital Economy and Digital Silk Road" [ ],which was held 17-19 September in Hangzhou,Zhejiang Province.90
}} The conference focuses on DSR construction cooperation and provides a venue for international exchanges and dialogue focusing on e-commerce, smart cities,AI and big data, smart logistics, and smart manufacturing.91 Foreign government officials from Malaysia, Laos, Serbia, Bangladesh, Czech Republic,Cuba,Kazakhstan,and South Korea were in attendance.92
}} To date, more than 40 companies have joined the DSR Industrial Alliance including Alibaba,Tencent,WeChat,iFlytek,Sugon,

86 Li Ruan, "One Belt, One Road" Digital Economy Strategic Alliance Established [" ]," China Securities Journal website, (November 2, 2017), accessed on January 8, 2019 at http://cs. com. cn/ xwzx/201711/t20171102_5550065. html; and "Lu Wei Attends One Belt, One Road Digital Economy Strategic Alliance Establishment Ceremony [ ]," Ministry of Commerce website, (November 3, 2017), accessed on January 8, 2019 at http://www. mofcom. gov. cn/article/difang/201711/20171102665974. shtml
87 "Inspur Initiates the Establishment of the One Belt, One Road, Digital Economic Strategic Alliance [ ]," Inspur Group via PRNewswire Asia website, (November 3, 2017), accessed on January 8, 2019 at https://www. prnasia. com/story/193031-1. shtml
88 "Inspur Initiates the Establishment of the One Belt, One Road, Digital Economic Strategic Alliance [ ]," Inspur Group via PRNewswire Asia website, (November 3, 2017), accessed on January 8, 2019 at https://www. prnasia. com/story/193031-1. shtml

89 "Digital Economy and Digital Silk Road International Conference Propose Joining Hands to Construct Digital Silk Road [   ]," General Office of the Zhejiang Provincial Government website, (September 19, 2018), accessed on January 2, 2019 at http://www. zj. gov. cn/art/2018/9/19/art_41146_2291184. html (Original text:  "" )
90 "International Conference on Digital Economy and Digital Silk Road []" Official conference website, (September 2018), accessed on January 8, 2019 at http://ficdedsr. medmeeting. org/Content/103894
91 "International Conference on Digital Economy and Digital Silk Road []" Official conference website, (September 2018), accessed on January 8, 2019 at http://ficdedsr. medmeeting. org/Content/103894
92 "International Conference on Digital Economy and Digital Silk Road []" Official conference website, (September 2018), accessed on January 8, 2019 at http://ficdedsr. medmeeting. org/Content/103894

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More than
40 companies
have joined the DSR Industrial Alliance including Alibaba, Tencent, WeChat, iFlytek, Sugon, Inspur, Baidu, Bilibili, China Electronic Technology Group, and Zhejiang Robot Industry Group.

Inspur,Baidu,Bilibili,China Electronic Technology Group, and Zhejiang Robot Industry Group.93
Setting Standards, Altering the Competitive Landscape
P RC FINANCING AND CONSTRUCTION OF digital and other technical infrastructure under DSR spearheads Beijing's offensive to export technological standards in ICT, cybersecurity, AI, robotics, smart technologies and applications, as well as new energy technologies and explosives, as well as power grids and transportation systems.94 A body of reporting indicates that--at least as early as 201595--Beijing has aimed to promote PRC technology standards and policies to become the de facto benchmark across OBOR countries in central Asia, SE Asia, the Middle East, Africa,

South and Central America, and even peripherally in Europe and North America--not only to enable disproportionate PRC influence over international ICT regulation but also to gain advantage by increasing barriers to multinational trade and governance that will be difficult to reverse.
}} As a result, the PRC's encouragements--or requirements--that OBOR participant countries adopt PRC technical standards as part of DSR and other infrastructure projects is already altering global competition, negatively impacting non-PRC companies' ability to compete in foreign markets.96
}} Proliferation of PRC standards under the OBOR rubric paves the way for projection of PRC military power by extending the reach of Beijing's "military-civil fusion" MCF programs in strategic regions.

93 "International Conference on Digital Economy and Digital Silk Road []" Official conference website, (September 2018), accessed on January 8, 2019 at http://ficdedsr. medmeeting. org/Content/103894; and "Zhejiang Robot Industry Group invited to be founding member of the Digital (Online) Silk Road International Industrial Alliance [ ]," Guangxi Tus-Holding Co. website, (September 21, 2018), accessed on January 2, 2019 at http://www. gxtuscity. com/news/ group/20180921652. html
94 See "industrial communications" implementation guidance for the 2018-2020 standards action plan in support of OBOR issued by the Science and Technology Department of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT): "Implementation Opinions of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology on the Harmonization of Industrial Communication Industry Standards in Service of Construction of the "Belt and Road" [ ""]," Key Work [] webpage of MIIT's official website, (November 12, 2018), accessed on January 10, 2019 at http:// www. miit. gov. cn/n1146290/n4388791/c6480447/content. html
95 "OBOR Standards Harmonization Action Plan (2015-2017) [,2015--2017]," Belt and Road Portal [], (February 15, 2017), accessed on January 10, 2019 at https://www. yidaiyilu. gov. cn/wcm. files/upload/CMSydylgw/201702/201702150616033. pdf

96 For additional analysis on the anticompetitive impact of Beijing's OBOR technical standards offensive, see: Andrew Polk, "China is Quietly Setting Global Standards," Bloomberg News, (May 6, 2018), accessed on December 31, 2018 at https://www. bloomberg. com/opinion/articles/2018-05-06/ china-is-quietly-setting-global-standards

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DSR S&T Educational Exchange Programs: Getting the Message Out

The PRC government and ICT industry have developed educational exchange programs designed to cultivate international expertise on matters relating to OBOR and PRC digital innovation.Beijing's exportation of educational resources promotes PRC soft power,portraying the PRC as "bringing good" to countries worldwide.These programs are indicative of Beijing's goals to promote PRC technological skills, standards, culture, and ideology through OBOR.
}} The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS; ) in 2016 established the Digital Silk Road International Science Plan [ ], referred to on its official website as the "Digital Belt and Road Program" (or DBAR).97 DBAR's Engagement Committee is tasked with liaising with Belt and Road partners to ensure the promotion of the organization's strategic goals, including the transfer of appropriate technology, according to the Committee's official description.98 Since its founding, DBAR has established

cooperation and education centers throughout Africa99,Europe100, and Asia101. DBAR in November 2018 inaugurated its Center of Excellence on the campus of the University of South Carolina, which provides researchers from the PRC's CAS with access to data from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), according to the official press release from DBAR.102
}} Huawei's "Seeds for the Future," first launched in 2008, invites students from across the world to study science, technology, and engineering in the PRC.103 The objective is for these students to return and apply PRC systems and methods in their home countries, thus further propagating and standardizing foreign deployment of PRC technologies and methodologies.As of 2016,Huawei has seen participation from 96 countries and international organizations, and over 3,000 students from around the world have completed the program.104

97 "DSR international plan science program document promulgated globally [" ]," Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) official website rehosted from the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth [], (December 7, 2017), accessed on September 17, 2018 at http://www.cas.cn/ yx/201712/t20171207_4626139.shtml
98 "Engagement Committee," Digital Belt and Road (DBAR) official website, (undated), accessed on January 25, 2019 at http://www.dbeltroad.org/index.php?m=content&c=index&a=lists&catid=66

99 DBAR has established Centers of Excellence in Zambia, Uganda, and Tunisia. "DBAR Opens the Center of Excellence in Lusaka," Digital Belt and Road (DBAR) official website, (June 28, 2018), accessed on January 25, 2019 at http://www.dbeltroad.org/index.php?m=content&c=index&a=show&catid=85&id=636; and "Digital Belt and Road (DBAR)-Heritage and Institute of National Heritage (INP) Sign Cooperation Agreement," Digital Belt and Road (DBAR) official website, (December 20, 2017), accessed on January 25, 2019 at http://www.dbeltroad.org/index.php?m=content&c=index&a=show&catid=85&id=400; and "DBAR Makes its Debut in Africa," Digital Belt and Road (DBAR) official website, (October 29, 2016), accessed on January 25, 2019 at http://www.dbeltroad.org/index.php?m=content&c=index&a=show&catid=85&id=365
100 "DBAR Opens the Center of Excellence in Helsinki," Digital Belt and Road (DBAR) official website, (October 31, 2018), accessed on January 25, 2019 at http://www.dbeltroad.org/ index.php?m=content&c=index&a=show&catid=85&id=640
101 "Third PEEX Science Conference Held in Moscow, MOU Signed to Boost DBAR-PEEK Collaboration," Digital Belt and Road (DBAR) official website, (October 19, 2017), accessed on January 25, 2019 at http://www.dbeltroad.org/index.php?m=content&c=index&a=show&catid=85&id=389; and "Digital Belt and Road Program Opens its First Centre of Excellence in Bangkok," Digital Belt and Road (DBAR) official website, (February 28, 2018), accessed on January 25, 2019 at http:// www.dbeltroad.org/index.php?m=content&c=index&a=show&catid=85&id=629
102 "DBAR Opens the Center of Excellence in Columbia," Digital Belt and Road (DBAR) official website, (November 19, 2018), accessed on January 25, 2019 at http://www.dbeltroad.org/ index.php?m=content&c=index&a=show&catid=85&id=642
103 "Seeds for the Future," Huawei Technologies, (2017), accessed on January 25, 2019 at http://www-file.huawei. com/-/media/CORPORATE/PDF/Sustainability/seeds-forthe-future-v1.pdf?source=corp_comm
104 "Seeds for the Future," Huawei Europe, (undated), accessed on January 25, 2019 at https://huawei.eu/campaign/seeds-future

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© 2019 Pointe Bello

The PRC Standardization Administration's [] "Harmonization of Standards for Jointly Constructing `One Belt and One Road' Action Plan (2018-2020) [ ""2018-2020 ]" proclaims Beijing's interest in promoting the application and implementation of PRC national standards throughout OBOR regions.105 The policy states that by 2020, the PRC should develop a new pattern for international standardization through government-driven, market-led coordination.106 Before launching into specific future standardization objectives, an MIIT implementation guidance document published in late 2018-- Implementation Opinions of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology on the Harmonization of Industrial Communication Industry Standards in Service of Construction of the "Belt and Road" [ "" ]"--provides an overview of progress to date:
"More than 80 international standards have been formulated jointly with countries [participating in] OBOR, and more than 400 foreign language development plans have been deployed in the system; the
105 "Harmonization of Standards for Jointly Constructing `One Belt and One Road' Action Plan (2018-2020) [  "" 2018-2020]," Belt and Road Portal [], (January 11, 2018), accessed on December 18, 2018 at https://www. yidaiyilu. gov. cn/zchj/ qwfb/43480. htm; and "Harmonization of Standards for Jointly Constructing `One Belt and One Road' Action Plan (2018-2020) Officially Released [ " " 2018-2020]," National Development and Reform Commission [NDRC;  ], (December 26, 2017), accessed on December 18, 2018 at http://www. ndrc. gov. cn/gzdt/201712/ t20171226_871645. html
106 "Harmonization of Standards for Jointly Constructing `One Belt and One Road' Action Plan (2018-2020) [  "" 2018-2020]," Belt and Road Portal [], (January 11, 2018), accessed on December 18, 2018 at https://www. yidaiyilu. gov. cn/zchj/ qwfb/43480. htm; and "Harmonization of Standards for Jointly Constructing `One Belt and One Road' Action Plan (2018-2020) Officially Released [ " " 2018-2020]," National Development and Reform Commission [NDRC;  ], (December 26, 2017), accessed on December 18, 2018 at http://www. ndrc. gov. cn/gzdt/201712/ t20171226_871645. html

standard mutual recognition field has been expanded to form a batch of mutual recognition standards; a group of advanced Chinese standards are in OBOR. "107
Documents which comprise high-level guidance for all institutions in the PRC indicate that top PRC leaders intend to gain a strategic edge for the PRC by changing the standards and rules of global industry and commerce to enable disproportionate PRC influence over international regulation and to increase barriers to multinational trade and governance by other nations. In such documents, statements attributed to General Secretary Xi Jinping and other top leaders advocate changing the rules of the international order to facilitate the rise of PRC economic and geostrategic power and influence. For example, in 2014 Xi stated:
"At present, major breakthroughs in scientific and technological innovation and accelerated application are likely to reshape global economic structure and transform the industrial and economic competition arena. In the traditional international development arena, the rules have been formulated by others, we can join in, but must follow the rules of competition already set,without rights to take more initiative.The major opportunity to seize the new round of scientific and technological revolution and industrial transformation is to join in the construction of the new arena of competition, and even lead some of the construction, so that we become an important determiner of the new rules of competition, and an important leader in the new arena of competition. If we don't have a fresh trick, or a few fresh tricks, and no ability to participate in or lead construction of the new arena, then we lack opportunities. "108
107 "Implementation Opinions of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology on the Standardization of Industrial Communication Industry Serving the Construction of the `Belt and Road' [  "" ]," Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, (November 2018), accessed on January 26, 2019 at http://www. miit. gov. cn/ n1146295/n1652858/n1652930/n3757016/c6480388/content. html
108 "Study in depth and implement Xi Jinping's thought on social ism with Chinese characteristics in the new era, Part 5: Imple ment an innovation-driven development strategy [ ,  ]," observed at root URL theory. people. com. cn

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The "Harmonization of Standards for Jointly Constructing `One Belt and One Road' Action Plan (2018-2020)" specifies key target countries for the PRC's standardization goals. This includes consolidating and improving standardization cooperation with countries in Europe, ASEAN, BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa),Northeast Asia,North America,Africa and Oceania.109 It also aims to extend regional standardization cooperation channels to countries in Central and Eastern Europe,Central Asia,West Asia and the Middle East.110

}} According to a report by the PRC's official news agency Xinhua, Beijing secured agreements from at least six countries--Laos, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Thailand, Turkey, and United Arab Emirates--to promote international standardization cooperation relating to broadband access and quality, e-commerce, technological skills training, and information and communications technology investment promotion under the "One Belt, One Road" Digital Economy International Cooperation Initiative, which was launched in December 2017.111

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109 "Harmonization of Standards for Jointly Constructing `One Belt and One Road' Action Plan (2018-2020) [  "" 2018-2020]," Belt and Road Portal [], (January 11, 2018), accessed on December 18, 2018 at https://www. yidaiyilu. gov. cn/zchj/ qwfb/43480. htm
110 "Harmonization of Standards for Jointly Constructing `One Belt and One Road' Action Plan (2018-2020) [  "" 2018-2020]," Belt and Road Portal [], (January 11, 2018), accessed on December 18, 2018 at https://www. yidaiyilu. gov. cn/zchj/ qwfb/43480. htm

111 "7 countries jointly agreed to initiate a new chapter in `Digital Silk Road' cooperation [7 " " ]," Xinhua News [], (December 3, 2017), accessed on December 17, 2018 at http://www.
xinhuanet. com/world/2017-12/03/c_1122050732. htm

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03
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Case Study: Beijing Hands-on Guidance, Support of DSR--ChinaASEAN Information Harbor Co. , Ltd.

B EGINNING AS EARLY AS 2014, TOP PRC leaders designated and provided guidance to the then-nascent Guangxi provincial SOE "China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co., Ltd., ([-- ], hereafter CAIH)--to support the promotion of PRC-based telecom and internet infrastructure in South and Southeast Asia. CAIH provides insight into how PRC policies, government agencies and enterprises coordinate and interact with each other to implement DSR projects.
}} CAIH is a subsidiary of "Guangxi Beibu Gulf Investment Group Co. , Ltd. " ([ ], hereafter BGIGC), a large state-owned enterprise wholly funded by the People's Government of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Guangxi).112 It is comprised of industrial, finance investment, and service trade components with 13 wholly-owned subsidiaries, a "mothership fund," and three "sub-funds" with more
112 "Group Introduction []," Official website of Guangxi Beibu Gulf Investment Group Co. , Ltd. , (undated), accessed on December 10, 2018 at http://www. bgigc. com/ about/21/111/1. aspx

than RMB 500 million ($74 million) in assets, and a value exceeding RMB 2 billion ($296 million).113
}} The NDRC and CAC are referenced together with CAIH's controlling entities--Guangxi Autonomous Region Government, and the key central state-owned telecom enterprise China Unicom Group Corporation--suggesting that NDRC and CAC have equity in or collaborate with CAIH.114
}} CAIH holds a strategically important role as a "platform-based information technology company" approved by the State Council,and is the only "China" prefix enterprise head-
113 "Company Profile []," Official website of the ChinaASEAN Information Harbor Co. , Ltd. (CAIH), (undated), accessed on November 20, 2018 at http://www. caih. com/ newsView. html?id=628
114 "China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co. , Ltd. Founding Conference held in Nanning, Guangxi [-- ]," Official website of the China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co. , Ltd. (CAIH), (May 30, 2016), accessed on November 19, 2018 at http://www. caih. com/newsView_257. html

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CAIH serves to implement a ChinaASEAN information and communication network system and information service hub in China's southwest and south-central regions with Guangxi as its fulcrum, outwardly facing ASEAN countries.

quartered in Guangxi.115 In the PRC, the use of geopolitical jurisdictions as the prefix of an organization's name generally indicates the level of government by which the organization is controlled and to which it reports.
The formation of CAIH began in September 2014 with Vice Premier Zhang Gaoli [] publicly announcing its official launch at the opening ceremony of the 12th China-ASEAN Expo in September 2015.116

}} Lu explained that at the China-ASEAN Cyberspace Forum in September 2014, CAC and the Guangxi Autonomous Regional Party Committee Government jointly proposed to build CAIH in order to implement the national OBOR initiative and strengthen the interconnection between China and ASEAN countries.119 The proposal received a positive response from ASEAN countries in attendance.120

CAIH serves to implement a China-ASEAN information and communication network system and information service hub in China's southwest and south-central regions with Guangxi as its fulcrum, outwardly facing ASEAN countries.117 Visits to CAIH by top PRC leaders,including General Secretary Xi Jinping, demonstrate the company's close ties to Beijing and importance in implementing a key DSR initiative.
}} During an investigation and study visit to in Nanning, Guangxi on 20 April 2017, CPC General Secretary Xi Jinping received a briefing from the president of CAIH Lu Dongliang reporting on the progress of CAIH with Xi "issuing important instructions" on its construction.118
115 "Group Introduction []," Official website of Guangxi Beibu Gulf Investment Group Co. , Ltd. , (undated), accessed on December 10, 2018 at http://www. bgigc. com/ about/21/111/1. aspx

}} On 20 April 2017,General Secretary Xi Jinping instructed that CAIH is of great significance to the construction of OBOR, can effectively promote "policy communication, facility connectivity, smooth trade, financial communication and popular support" along the "Belt and Road" countries, and [Xi said he] "hopes that the pace of construction will speed up and that the historical mission entrusted to CAIH by the nation [emphasis added] will be completed at an early date."121
CAIH is "an important platform" for building a closer China-ASEAN community and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road "in accordance with Beijing's OBOR strategy" and is also a key enabler of "the implementation of the `three major positionings,'"122 which consist of [1] serve as the PRC's international channel to ASEAN, [2] establish a new strategic hub for the opening and development of the PRC's

116 "General Secretary Xi Jinping inspects the construction of China-ASEAN Information Harbor [-- ]," Official website of the China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co. , Ltd. (CAIH), (May 5, 2017), accessed on November 20, 2018 at http://www. caih. com/newsView_93. html
117 "General Secretary Xi Jinping inspects the construction of China-ASEAN Information Harbor [-- ]," Official website of the China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co. , Ltd. (CAIH), (May 5, 2017), accessed on November 20, 2018 at http://www. caih. com/newsView_93. html; and "Visit the "Digital Silk Road": China-ASEAN Information Harbor [""-- ]," YunnanNet (website of the Yunnan Daily, official newspaper of the Yunnan province provincial party committee according to the site's profile [], (October 25, 2018), accessed on December 12, 2018 at http://m. yunnan. cn/system/2018/10/25/030101739. shtml
118 "General Secretary Xi Jinping inspects the construction of China-ASEAN Information Harbor [-- ]," Official website of the China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co. , Ltd. (CAIH), (May 5, 2017), accessed on November 20, 2018 at http://www. caih. com/newsView_93. html

119 "General Secretary Xi Jinping inspects the construction of China-ASEAN Information Harbor [-- ]," Official website of the China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co. , Ltd. (CAIH), (May 5, 2017), accessed on November 20, 2018 at http://www. caih. com/newsView_93. html
120 "General Secretary Xi Jinping inspects the construction of China-ASEAN Information Harbor [-- ]," Official website of the China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co. , Ltd. (CAIH), (May 5, 2017), accessed on November 20, 2018 at http://www. caih. com/newsView_93. html
121 "General Secretary Xi Jinping inspects the construction of China-ASEAN Information Harbor [-- ]," Official website of the China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co. , Ltd. (CAIH), (May 5, 2017), accessed on November 20, 2018 at http://www. caih. com/newsView_93. html
122 "Company Profile []," Official website of the ChinaASEAN Information Harbor Co. , Ltd. (CAIH), (undated), accessed on November 20, 2018 at http://www. caih. com/ newsView. html?id=628

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© 2019 Pointe Bello

southwestern central and southern regions, and [3] form the organic integration of Beijing's "OBOR" strategy.123

"National 13th Five-Year Plan for the Development of Information and Communication Industry. "125

}} CAIH is included in at least two national-level plans: [1] the "National 13th Five-Year Plan" (March 17,2016),and [2] the "Outline of the National Informatization Development Strategy" (July 27, 2016).124 The deployment of network connectivity between China and ASEAN (among other regions) is a goal of the

}} The "China-ASEAN Information Harbor Construction Plan," which was approved by the State Council in April 2016, clearly states that China Unicom Group Corporation will take the lead in setting up and building a multi-party, market-oriented China-ASEAN

123 "Guangxi: The new mission of `three major positioning' leads the new pattern of reform and opening up [" "]," Official website of the government of the PRC news webpage, (April 28, 2018), accessed on December 4, 2018 at http://www. gov. cn/ xinwen/2018-04/28/content_5286717. htm
124 "Guangxi: The new mission of `three major positioning' leads the new pattern of reform and opening up [" "]," Official website of the government of the PRC news webpage, (April 28, 2018), accessed on December 4, 2018 at http://www. gov. cn/ xinwen/2018-04/28/content_5286717. htm

125 "Guangxi: The new mission of `three major positioning' leads the new pattern of reform and opening up [ ""]," Official website of the government of the PRC news webpage,
(April 28, 2018), accessed on December 4, 2018 at http://
www. gov. cn/xinwen/2018-04/28/content_5286717. htm
See also e. g. ". . . Establish smooth international communi-
cation facilities, optimize the layout of international commu-
nication networks, and improve the cross-border land and
sea cable infrastructure. Build a China-Arab [world] online
Silk Road, and accelerate the construction of the ChinaASEAN Information Harbor. [   . ]" in "Outline of the Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Develop-
ment of the People's Republic of China: Chapter 6, Expand the Internet economic space [ :   ]," Xinhua News [], (March 17, 2016), accessed on December 10, 2018 at http://www. xinhuanet.
com//politics/2016lh/2016-03/17/c_1118366322_7. htm; and
"National Informatization Development Strategy Outline [ ], General Office of the State Council, (July 27, 2016), accessed on January 25, 2019 at
http://www. cicpa. org. cn/Column/hyxxhckzl/zcyxs/201708/
W020170802569189682130. pdf; and "Yunnan Daily: National Informatization Development Strategy Outline [ : ]," Yunnan Daily, (July 28, 2016), accessed on December 10, 2018 at http://yndaily.
yunnan. cn/images/2016-07/28/04/2016072804_pdf. PDF;
and "Box 3: International Communication Network Project Deployment [3" ] in "Information and Communication Industry Development Plan (2016-2020) [ 20162020 ]," Ministry of Industry and Infomration Technology (MIIT), (March 29, 2017), accessed on December
10, 2018 at http://netsecinfo. com/html/372951349. html : (  3           POP    ---    POP  POP. )

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Information Harbor Co. , Ltd. ," according to the report about CAIH's "founding conference. "126
}} The CPC Central Committee's assignment of the "three major positionings" roles to Guangxi province is highlighted extensively in the 29 January 2016 "National economic and social development of the (Guangxi) autonomous region resolution of the Thirteenth Five-Year Plan" passed by the fifth meeting of the 12th People's Congress of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region posted on the website of the NDRC's Development Planning Division [].127

resources and play a full role in promoting local economic and social development.128
}} In addition,during a May 2018 visit to CAIH, Lu Xinshe--Secretary of the Communist Party of China Guangxi Provincial Committee--urged personnel to strive to accelerate the construction of CAIH into a powerful engine for information development with Guangxi as the base, outwardly facing ASEAN while serving as the communication network system and information service hub of China's southwest and south-central regions,and playing a greater role in international exchange and cooperation.129

The director of MIIT's Cybersecurity Authority Zhao Zhiguo and the deputy director of the Guangxi Communications Administration Wang Shanzhu on 17 March 2018 visited CAIH for an exchange with CAIH Chairman Lu Dongliang and other executive personnel; Zhao affirmed that in terms of development CAIH is clearly "macro-positioned," and is "meticulous at the micro level," and encouraged CAIH to use its international business platform to gather

}} CAIH is currently focused on building five large platforms: an infrastructure platform, an information sharing platform,a technology cooperation platform, an investment and trade service platform,and a humanities exchange platform, and 11 major projects such as a construction of information and

126 "China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co. , Ltd. Founding Conference held in Nanning, Guangxi [-- ]," Official website of the China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co. , Ltd. (CAIH), (May 30, 2016), accessed on November 19, 2018 at http://www. caih. com/newsView_257. html
127 "The 13th Five Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Resolution of the Fifth Session of the 12th People's Congress of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region on the 13th Five Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of the Autonomous Region [  :     ]," Official Website of the National reform and Development Commission (NDRC) Development Planning Division [] (January 29, 2016), accessed on December 7, 2018 at http://ghs. ndrc. gov. cn/ghwb/dfztgh/201607/P020160713589724659626. pdf; and "Guangxi: The new mission of `three major positioning' leads the new pattern of reform and opening up [ ""]," Official website of the government of the PRC news webpage, (April 28, 2018), accessed on December 4, 2018 at http:// www. gov. cn/xinwen/2018-04/28/content_5286717. htm; and "Peng Qinghua: Struggling to Take on the New Mission of "Three Major Positions" to Realize a New Leap in Guangxi's Open Development----Speech at the opening development conference in the whole district [" " ---- ]," Communist Party of China (CPC) news webpage of People's Daily website, (June 24, 2018), accessed on November 29, 2018 at http://cpc. people. com. cn/n1/2016/0624/c64102-28476916. html

128 "Zhao Zhiguo, Director of the Network Security Administration of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, and Wang Shanzhu, Deputy Director of the Guangxi Communications Administration, visited China Unicom Guangxi Branch and China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co. , Ltd. [   -]," Official website of the Guangxi Communications Administration [ ], (March 27, 2017), accessed on December 10, 2018 at http://www. gxca. gov. cn/4/20170327172033_42. html
129 "Lu Xinshe, Party Secretary of the Autonomous Region, visits CAIH to conduct special research [ ]," Official website of the China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co. , Ltd. (CAIH), (May 29, 2018), accessed on November 20, 2018 at http://www. caih. com/newsView_643. html CAIH was formed on 26 April 2016 by its supporting and supervising entities the Guangxi Autonomous Region Government and China Unicom Group Corporation, which is a key central state-owned enterprise managed under the State Council of the PRC's State-Owned Asset Supervision and Administration Commission (SASAC), according to an article posted on the official CAIH website vernacular Chinese: "China-ASEAN Information harbor Co. , Ltd. Founding Conference held in Nanning, Guangxi [-- ]," Official website of the China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co. , Ltd. (CAIH), (May 30, 2016), accessed on November 19, 2018 at http://www. caih. com/newsView_257. html

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communication infrastructure connectivity project and a China-ASEAN information harbor base project.130
}} Specifically,CAIH projects include the China Surveying and Mapping Geographic Information System, the China-ASEAN Harbor City Cooperation Network Information Platform, Qinzhou Bonded Harbor, Smart

Harbor, Southbound Multimodal Transport Integrated Service Information Platform, Southbound Channel Single Window International Cooperation Platform,China-ASEAN Economic and Trade Big Data Platform Realtime Construction Operation, CAIH Sugarcom, as well as projects related to medical imaging, cloud communications, wireless cities, and cross-border trade settlement information services.131

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130 "China-ASEAN Information harbor Co. , Ltd. Founding Conference held in Nanning, Guangxi [-- ]," Official website of the China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co. , Ltd. (CAIH), (May 30,
2016), accessed on November 19, 2018 at http://www. caih.
com/newsView_257. html

131 "Lu Xinshe, Party Secretary of the Autonomous Region, visits CAIH to conduct special research [ ]," Official website of the China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co. , Ltd. (CAIH), (May 29,
2018), accessed on November 20, 2018 at http://www. caih.
com/newsView_643. html

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Timeline of PRC Leadership Visits to CAIH

26 APRIL 2016:

China-ASEAN Information Port Co. , Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as "CAIH") Founding Conference held in Nanning, Guangxi.132 "China Unicom is designated the lead in setting up a multi-party, market-oriented CAIH to carry out China-ASEAN information harbor construction."133

27 APRIL 2017:

CPC General Secretary Xi Jinping during an inspection tour in Nanning, Guangxi provides guidance and is briefed by CAIH President Lu Dongliang on CAIH construction and results.134

132 China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co., Ltd. (CAIH) was formed on 26 April 2016 by its supporting and supervising entities the Guangxi Autonomous Region Government and China Unicom Group Corporation, which is a key central state-owned enterprise managed under the State Council of the PRC's State-Owned Asset Supervision and Administration Commission (SASAC), according to this article: "ChinaASEAN Information Port Co., Ltd. Founding Conference held in Nanning, Guangxi [-- ]," CAIH official website, (May 30, 2016), accessed on November 19, 2018 at http://www.caih. com/newsView_11.html

133 China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co., Ltd. (CAIH) was formed on 26 April 2016 by its supporting and supervising entities the Guangxi Autonomous Region Government and China Unicom Group Corporation, which is a key central state-owned enterprise managed under the State Council of the PRC's State-Owned Asset Supervision and Administration Commission (SASAC), according to this article: "ChinaASEAN Information Port Co., Ltd. Founding Conference held in Nanning, Guangxi [-- ]," CAIH official website, (May 30, 2016), accessed on November 19, 2018 at http://www.caih. com/newsView_11.html

134 "General Secretary Xi Jinping inspects the construction of China-ASEAN Information Harbor [-- ]," Official website of the China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co., Ltd. (CAIH), (May 5, 2017), accessed on November 19, 2018 at http://www.caih.com/newsView_257. html. China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co., Ltd. (CAIH) was formed on 26 April 2016 by its supporting and supervising entities the Guangxi Autonomous Region Government and China Unicom Group Corporation, which is a key central state-owned enterprise managed under the State Council of the PRC's State-Owned Asset Supervision and Administration Commission (SASAC), according to this article: "ChinaASEAN Information Port Co., Ltd. Founding Conference held in Nanning, Guangxi [-- ]," CAIH official website, (May 30, 2016), accessed on November 19, 2018 at http://www.caih. com/newsView_11.html

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9 JUNE 2017:

Wang Yang, member of the Standing Committee of the Politburo of the CPC Central Committee and Vice Premier of the State Council, during an investigation tour in Guangxi inspects CAIH construction progress and provides guidance.135

17 MARCH 2018:

Director of MIIT's Cybersecurity Authority Zhao Zhiguo and the deputy director of the Guangxi Communications Administration Wang Shanzhu visited CAIH.136

© 2019 Pointe Bello

135 Official website of the China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co., Ltd. (CAIH) in vernacular Chinese: "--  [Vice Premier Wang Yang inspects the construction of China-ASEAN Information Harbor]" posted 12 June 2017, accessed 19 November 2018 at root URL: http://www.caih.com/newsView_105.html (CAIH) was formed on 26 April 2016 by its supporting and supervising entities the Guangxi Autonomous Region Government and China Unicom Group Corporation, which is a key central state-owned enterprise managed under the State Council of the PRC's State-Owned Asset Supervision and Administration Commission (SASAC), according to this article: "ChinaASEAN Information Port Co., Ltd. Founding Conference held in Nanning, Guangxi [-- ]," CAIH official website, (May 30, 2016), accessed on November 19, 2018 at http://www.caih. com/newsView_11.html

136 "Zhao Zhiguo, Director of the Network Security Administra-
tion of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology,
and Wang Shanzhu, Deputy Director of the Guangxi Commu-
nications Administration, visited China Unicom Guangxi Branch and China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co., Ltd. [  ]," Official website of the Guangxi Communications Administration [ ], (March 27, 2017), accessed on December 10, 2018 at http://www.gxca.gov.cn/4/20170327172033_42.html

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20 MAY 2018:

Vice Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference Ma Biao leads a special investigation group of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference to inspect CAIH.137

© 2019 Pointe Bello

137 "Vice Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference Ma Biao led a special investigation group of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference to Inspect CAIH [ ]" Official website of the China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co. , Ltd. (CAIH), (May 24, 2018), accessed on November 19, 2018 at http://www. caih. com/newsView. html?id=628 China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co. , Ltd. (CAIH) was formed on 26 April 2016 by its supporting and supervising entities the Guangxi Autonomous Region Government and China Unicom Group Corporation, which is a key central state-owned enterprise managed under the State Council of the PRC's State-Owned Asset Supervision and Administration Commission (SASAC), according to this article: "ChinaASEAN Information Port Co. , Ltd. Founding Conference held in Nanning, Guangxi [-- ]," CAIH official website, (May 30, 2016), accessed on November 19, 2018 at http://www. caih. com/newsView_11. html

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29 MAY 2018:

Lu Xinshe--Party Secretary of the Guangxi Autonomous Region--visits CAIH.138

© 2019 Pointe Bello

138 "Lu Xinshe, Party Secretary of the Autonomous Region, visits CAIH to conduct special research [ ]" posted 29 May 2018 on the Official website of the China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co. , Ltd. (CAIH) in vernacular Chinese observed 20 November 2018 at root URL: http://www. caih. com/newsView_643. html. China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co. , Ltd. (CAIH) was formed on 26 April 2016 by its supporting and supervising entities the Guangxi Autonomous Region Government and China Unicom Group Corporation, which is a key central state-owned enterprise managed under the State Council of the PRC's State-Owned Asset Supervision and Administra tion Commission (SASAC), according to this article: "ChinaASEAN Information Port Co. , Ltd. Founding Conference held in Nanning, Guangxi [-- ]," CAIH official website, (May 30, 2016), observed 19 November 2018 at http://www. caih. com/ newsView_11. html

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12 SEPTEMBER 2018;

Han Zheng--member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and vice premier of the State Council--visits CAIH.139

22 NOVEMBER 2018:

Li Peixing--deputy governor of Gansu Province, accompanied by Xi Yang, deputy secretary general of the [Guangxi] autonomous region and director of the Big Data Development Bureau--visits CAIH.140

© 2019 Pointe Bello

139 "Han Zheng, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and vice premier of the State Council, visits China-ASEAN Information Harbor [ ]," Official website of the China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co., Ltd. (CAIH), (September 18, 2018), accessed on November 19, 2018 at http://www.caih.com/ newsView.html?id=819. China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co., Ltd. (CAIH) was formed on 26 April 2016 by its supporting and supervising entities the Guangxi Autonomous Region Government and China Unicom Group Corporation, which is a key central state-owned enterprise managed under the State Council of the PRC's State-Owned Asset Supervision and Administration Commission (SASAC), according to this article: "China-ASEAN Information Port Co., Ltd. Founding Conference held in Nanning, Guangxi [-- ]," CAIH official website, (May 30, 2016), accessed on November 19, 2018 at http://www.caih.com/newsView_11.html

140 "Li Peixing, deputy governor of Gansu Province visits CAIH for investigation []" Official website of the China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co., Ltd. (CAIH), (November 22, 2018), accessed on November 26, 2018 at http://www.caih.com/newsView.html?id=983#. ChinaASEAN Information Harbor Co., Ltd. (CAIH) was formed on 26 April 2016 by its supporting and supervising entities the Guangxi Autonomous Region Government and China Unicom Group Corporation, which is a key central state-owned enterprise managed under the State Council of the PRC's StateOwned Asset Supervision and Administration Commission (SASAC), according to this article: "China-ASEAN Information Port Co., Ltd. Founding Conference held in Nanning, Guangxi [-- ]," CAIH official website, (May 30, 2016), accessed on November 19, 2018 at http://www.caih.com/newsView_11.html

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5 DECEMBER 2018

Director of Anhui Data Resources Administration Wang Wei visits CAIH.141

21 JANUARY 2019:

Gansu Provincial NDRC Communist Party Committee Secretary and Director Kang Jun visits CAIH.142

© 2019 Pointe Bello

141 "Director of Anhui Data Resources Administration Wang Wei visits CAIH for study and exchange [ ]," Official website of the China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co., Ltd. (CAIH),
(December 5, 2018) accessed on January 25, 2019 at http://
www.caih.com/newsView_1011.html

142 "Gansu Provincial NDRC Communist Party Committee Secretary and Director Kang Jun visits CAIH for study and exchange [ ]," Official website of the ChinaASEAN Information Harbor Co., Ltd. (CAIH), (January 22, 2019), accessed on January 25, 2019 at http://www.caih.com/ newsView_1087.html#

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Appendix A
Map Canada and Table of Select DSR Projects

26

United States

28

24

18

PLAN Base E-Commerce Fiber Optic Cable M&A

Satellite Infrastructure Smart City Telecommunications

ATLANTIC OCEAN

Mexico

GULF OF MEXICO

40
PACIFIC OCEAN

Cuba

14
14 Belize

Guatemala Honduras

El Salvador

Nicaragua

Costa Rica

Jamaica
CARIBBEAN SEA
Panama

Haiti Dominican Republic

Puerto Rico

46
Venezuela

Colombia

Guyana

French Suriname Guiana

41

Ecuador 3

Peru Bolivia

Brazil

Chile

Paraguay

Uruguay
Argentina
33

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Appendix A (Continued)
Iceland

PLAN Base

E-Commerce

Fiber Optic Cable

M&A
Sweden

Finland

Norway

Satellite Infrastructure Smart City Telecommunications

Estonia

Ireland Portugal

Denmark

Latvia Lithuania

United 20 Kingdom

30

36

Netherlands 47

Belgium 31

Germany

22 Czechia

2
Poland
Slovakia

France

Switzerland

Austria Slovenia

Hungary 39

Croatia

12

Bosnia and
Herzegovina Serbia

42

16 19

Italy

16Montenegro Kosovo Macedonia

Albania

Romania Bulgaria

Belarus
Ukraine Moldova
21 23

Spain

Greece 12

Turkey

12

16

Russia
Georgia Armenia Azerbaijan

Morocco

Algeria

Tunisia

Libya

12 16 19

Lebanon 25

Syria

Israel

Jordan 12

16 19

Egypt
12

16

Iraq

Kuwait

Saudi Arabia

16 Qatar
Arab

Mauritania

Mali

Senegal The Gambia Guinea-Bissau

Guinea

Sierra Leone Liberia

7
Burkina Faso
Benin

Côte d'Ivoire

Ghana

Togo

Niger
49
Nigeria Cameroon

Chad Central African Republic

Sudan South Sudan

Tajikistan

12

Yemen

16

Djibouti 12

19

16 19

Ethiopia

Somalia

19

3 19

Equatorial Guinea
Gabon

Republic of the Congo

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Uganda

Kenya 19 10

Rwanda

3

19

Burundi

Tanzania

Angola

Zambia 45

Malawi Mozambique

Zimbabwe

Namibia

Botswana

44 Swaziland

Lesotho
South Africa

Madagascar

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Appendix A (Continued)

PLAN Base E-Commerce Fiber Optic Cable M&A

Satellite Infrastructure Smart City Telecommunications

Russia

Kazakhstan

rkey

Georgia Armenia Azerbaijan

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan

Kyrgyzstan

Tajikistan

8

6

Syria

Lebanon

25

Iraq

6
Afghanistan

Iran

37

Jordan

Kuwait

Pakistan
Nepal

16

12

19

12

Qatar

16I

48

Saudi Arabia
16

United Arab Emirates

16 12

Oman

12 16 19
32

India
16

Tajikistan

12

Yemen

16

Djibouti 12

19

16 19

Ethiopia

Somalia

19

Kenya
10

19 19

19

19

nzania

13

13

13

13 13

13

Sri Lanka
12

Ru Mongolia

North Korea

SEA OF

China

South Korea 5

17

17

5 EAST CHINA SEA
5 17

Bhutan

Bangladesh 12

Myanmar

11 12 16

Laos
Thailand

5 16 18
17

5 17

SOUTH CHINA SEA

Cambodia Vietnam

4

16

16 17

5 16 17

5

16 Malaysia

12

16 1

18

5 12 17 18 27 29 34 12
12 Singapore

5 17
Taiwan
17 PHILIPPINES SEA
35 43
Philippines

Indonesia Ind

wi Mozambique

Madagascar

15 15 38

Aust

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Appendix A (Continued)

PLAN Base E-Commerce Fiber Optic Cable M&A

Satellite Infrastructure Smart City Telecommunications

Mongolia

Russia

Kyrgyzstan

Tajikistan

8

6

6 37

an

Nepal

India
16

13

13

13

13 13

13

Sri Lanka
12

North Korea

Japan SEA OF JAPAN

China

Bhutan

Bangladesh 12

Myanmar

11 12 16

Laos
Thailand

5 16 18
17

5 17

SOUTH CHINA SEA

Cambodia Vietnam

4

16

16 17

5 16 17

5

16 Malaysia

12

16 1

18

5 12 17 18 27 29 34 12
12 Singapore

South Korea 5
17
5 EAST CHINA SEA
5 17
5 17
Taiwan
17 PHILIPPINES SEA
35 43
Philippines

Indonesia

17

5

5

17

PACIFIC OCEAN

Indonesia
ARAFURA SEA

9

9

9

9

BISMARCK SEA

9

9

9

Papua

9

New Guinea

9

New Britain

9

9

9

9

9

9

Bougainville Island

Solomon Islands

SOLOMON SEA

Australia

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Appendix A (Continued)

NAME

1

MALAYSIA DIGITAL

FREE TRADE ZONE

(DFTZ)

LOCATION Malaysia

ESTIMATED PROJECT VALUE ($)
$34.9 million

2

GLOBEBILL-ECARD S.

Poland

N/A

A. COLLABORATION

PROJECT

3

CAMEROON-BRAZIL

Kribi, Cameroon/ $525.5 million

CABLE SYSTEM (SAIL)

Fortaleza, Brazil

4 HYALROUTE-CAMBODIA Sihanoukville,

SUBMARINE CABLE

Cambodia

$70 million

5 ASIA-PACIFIC GATEWAY China/Vietnam/

N/A

(APG) SUBMARINE

Malaysia/Japan/

FIBER OPTIC CABLE

South Korea/

Thailand/

Singapore/Taiwan/

Hong Kong

6 RAWALPINDIKHUNJERAB FIBER OPTIC CABLE

Rawalpindi, Pakistan

$44 million

7

BURKINA FASO FIBER

Ouagadougou,

OPTIC CABLE SYSTEM

Burkina Faso

$20.5 million

8 CHINA-AFGHANISTAN

Afghanistan/China $60 million

FIBER OPTIC NETWORK

9 KUMUL SUBMARINE CABLE

Papua New Guinea $200 million

STATUS

PROJECT TYPE

DESCRIPTION

PRC ENTITY

Under

E-Commerce

Construction

Completed E-Commerce

Completed Fiber Optic Cable

Completed Fiber Optic Cable

Completed Fiber Optic Cable

Alibaba launched the $34.9 million Digital Free Trade Zone (DTFZ) project with the Malaysian government in March 2017 to offer logistics and fulfillment capabilities and an online services platform.

Alibaba Group

IZP affiliate GlobeBill in 2014 signed a strategic cooperation agreement with Poland's eCard S. A. to jointly develop a cross-border e-commerce platform.

GlobeBill

Huawei Marine in September 2018 completed the $525.5 million Cameroon-Brazil Cable System (CBCS) with help from Cameroon's CamTel and Brazil's Telefónica and funding support from China EXIM Bank.

Huawei Marine/ China Unicom

Cambodia granted a 25-year contract to Cambodia Fibre Optic Communication Network, a subsidiary of HyalRoute Group, to construct and operate a $70 million submarine cable and a landing station in southwestern Preah Sihanouk Province.

HyalRoute/ Cambodia Fibre Optic Communication Network (CFOCN)

The 10,900-km Asia-Pacific Gateway (APG) Submarine Cable is owned by a consortium of 13 members, including China Telecom, China Unicom, and China Mobile.

China Telecom/ China Unicom/ China Mobile

Completed Fiber Optic Cable

Completed Fiber Optic Cable

Under

Fiber Optic Cable

Construction

Under

Fiber Optic Cable

Construction

This 820-km fiber optic cable project from Rawalpindi, Pakistan to Khunjerab was completed by Huawei and Pakistan's Special Communication Organization (SCO) in July 2018 at a cost of $44 million.

Huawei Technologies

Huawei in July 2018 completed the $20.5 million fiber optic backbone network connecting Burkina Faso's capital of Ouagadougou to Dakara Dakola.

Huawei Technologies

ZTE and Huawei in April 2017 agreed to construct a $60 million fiber optic cable connecting Kashgar, China to Afghanistan's Fayzabad, and ultimately on to Pakistan, India, Tajikistan, Iran, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Europe.

Zhongxing Technologies (ZTE)/Huawei Technology

Huawei and China EXIM Bank in August 2018 agreed to assist Papua New Guinea's PNG DataCo in the construction of the 5,400-km Kumul Submarine Cable, which will establish the country's national backbone transmission network.

Huawei Marine

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Appendix A (Continued)

NAME

LOCATION

10 KENYA NATIONAL

Nairobi, Kenya

OPTIC FIBRE BACKBONE

(NOFBI)

ESTIMATED PROJECT VALUE ($)
$59.3 million

11 MYANMAR FIBER OPTIC Myanmar COMMUNICATION NETWORK

$118.6 million

12 SEA-ME-WE 5 SUBMARINE CABLE
13 NATIONWIDE SUBMARINE CABLE OOREDOO MALDIVES (NASCOM)

Egypt/Yemen/Italy/ Djibouti/Indonesia/ United Arab Emirates/Pakistan/ Bangladesh/Turkey/ Sri Lanka/Malaysia/ Myanmar/Oman/ France/Singapore/ Saudi Arabia

$70 million

Maldives

$25 million

14 STRATEGIC EVOLUTION Belize UNDERWATER LINK (SEUL)

$100 million

15 MAURITIUS AND

Mauritius

N/A

RODRIGUES SUBMARINE

CABLE SYSTEM (MARS)

16 ASIA AFRICA EUROPE-1 Egypt/Yemen/

N/A

(AAE-1) SUBMARINE

Oman/Italy/Hong

CABLE

Kong/Greece/

Djibouti/Qatar/

United Arab

Emirates/Saudi

Arabia/Pakistan/

Malaysia/France/

India/Myanmar/

Thailand/

Cambodia/Vietnam

17 SOUTHEAST ASIA-

Singapore/Japan/ N/A

JAPAN CABLE 2 (SJC2) Hong Kong/Taiwan/

China/South Korea/

Vietnam/Cambodia/

Thailand

STATUS

PROJECT TYPE

Under

Fiber Optic Cable

Construction

Completed Fiber Optic Cable

Completed Fiber Optic Cable

DESCRIPTION

PRC ENTITY

Kenya in 2012 secured a concessional loan of $59.3 million from the China EXIM Bank to construct a nationwide fiber optic network. The project's second phase commenced in 2014.

Huawei Technologies

The Myanmar Fiber Optic Communication Network (MFOCN), a subsidiary of HyalRoute Group, installed 4,500-km of fiber optic cable in central and southern Myanmar for an estimated $118.6 million.

HyalRoute/ Myanmar Fiber Optic Communication Network (MFOCN)

The Southeast Asia-Middle East-Western Europe 5 (SEA-ME-WE 5) fiber optic cable is a $70 million, 20,000-km cable system that was constructed by a consortium of companies, including China Telecom, China Mobile, and China Unicom.

China Telecom/ China Unicom/ China Mobile

Completed Fiber Optic Cable

Completed Fiber Optic Cable

Under

Fiber Optic Cable

Construction

Completed Fiber Optic Cable

Ooredoo Maldives and Huawei Marine in December 2016 inaugurated Ooredoo's Nationwide Submarine Cable. The $25 million, 1,200-km cable aimed at connecting the Maldives' six main islands was deployed by Huawei Marine using its 100G technology.

Huawei Marine

Huawei in August 2017 completed Strategic Evolution Underwater Link (SEUL), an underwater cable system aimed to connect the Belize mainland to San Pedro Island.

Huawei Marine

The MARS fiber optic project, which will connect Mauritius to the Islands of Rodrigues, is being built by Mauritius Telecom, Hong Kong's PCCW Global and Huawei Marine.

Huawei Marine

China Unicom, MFOCN, and CFOCN are members of a international consortium that helped to construct the Asia Africa Europe-1 submarine cable. The 25,000-km cable project was initiatied in 2012 and was officially launched into service in 2017.

HyalRoute/China Unicom

Under

Fiber Optic Cable

Construction

China Mobile is part of a consortium of companies working to build the Southeast Asia-Japan Cable 2 (SJC2). The 10,500-km cable is expected to be completed by the end of 2020.

China Mobile

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Appendix A (Continued)

NAME

LOCATION

18 BAY TO BAY EXPRESS

United States/

CABLE SYSTEM (BTOBE) Singapore/

Malaysia/Hong

Kong

ESTIMATED PROJECT VALUE ($)
N/A

19 PEACE SUBMARINE CABLE

Pakistan/Egypt/

N/A

France/Djibouti/

Somalia/Kenya/

South Africa/

Seychelles

20 ACQUISITION OF NEUL

United Kingdom

$25 million

21 ACQUSITION OF NETAS Turkey

$101.28 million

22 ACQUISITION OF DATA ARTISANS
23 ACQUISITION OF TRENDYOL GROUP

Germany Turkey

$103.6 million $728 million

24 ACQUISITION OF TRUSTGO
25 ACQUISITION OF HEXATIER
26 ACQUISITION OF MOTOROLA MOBILITY
27 ACQUISITION OF HELLOPAY

United States Israel United States Singapore

$30 million $42 million $2.9 billion N/A

28 ACQUISITION OF EYEVERIFY

United States

$70 million

STATUS

PROJECT TYPE

Under

Fiber Optic Cable

Construction

Under

Fiber Optic Cable

Construction

Completed M&A Completed M&A Completed M&A Completed M&A Completed M&A Completed M&A Completed M&A Completed M&A
Completed M&A

DESCRIPTION

PRC ENTITY

China Mobile alongside Facebook, Amazon, and NEC is working to construct the Bay to Bay Express (BtoBE) Cable System, stretching from the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao region to San Francisco and Singapore. The project is expected to come into operation in early 2021.

China Mobile

Huawei Ocean Network Company announced in November 2017 that it will construct the PEACE submarine cable. Funding for the project is coming from China-ASEAN Information Harbor Co., China Construction Bank, and Huawei.

Huawei Ocean Network Company/ China-ASEAN Information Harbor Company/China Construction Bank

Huawei in 2014 acquired Cambridge-based Internet of Things (IoT) company Neul for $25 million.

Huawei Technologies

ZTE in 2016 acquired one of Turkey's leading telecommunications companies, Netas Telekomunikasyon for $101.28 million.

Zhongxing Technologies (ZTE)

Alibaba in 2019 acquired Germany's Data Artisans, a big data firm, for $103.6 million.

Alibaba Group

Alibaba in 2018 acquired Turkey-based e-commerce company Trendyol Group for $728 million.

Alibaba Group

Baidu in 2013 acquired California-based cybersecurity firm, TrustGo, for $30 million.

Baidu

Huawei in 2016 acquired Tel Aviv-based cyberscurity firm, HexaTier, for $42 million.

Huawei

Lenovo in 2014 acquired Chicago-based Motorola Mobility for $2.9 billion.

Lenovo

Alibaba's Ant Financial in 2017 acquired Singapore-based fintech company, HelloPay, for an undisclosed amount. HelloPay is the payments firm attached to Lazada Group, which Alibaba acquired in 2016.

Ant Financial

Alibaba's Ant Financial in 2016 acquired Missouri-based biometrics firm EyeVerify for $70 million.

Ant Financial

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Appendix A (Continued)

NAME
29 ACQUISITION OF LAZADA GROUP

LOCATION Singapore

ESTIMATED PROJECT VALUE ($)
$4 billion

30 ACQUISITION OF LINX

Amsterdam,

N/A

TELECOMMUNICATIONS Netherlands

31 EUTELSAT-CHINA UNICOM JOINT VENTURE

Paris, France

N/A

32 CHINA-PAKISTAN BEIDOU NAVIGATION SYSTEM

Karachi, Pakistan N/A

33 PATAGONIA TELEMETRY TRACKING AND COMMAND STATION

Patagonia, Argentina

$300 million

34 FOREST CITY

Johor Bahru, Malaysia

$100 billion

35 NEW MANILA BAY-CITY Manila, Philippines $100 billion OF PEARL

36 DUISBURG SMART CITY Duisburg, Germany N/A

37 LAHORE SAFE CITY

Punjab, Pakistan

N/A

STATUS

PROJECT TYPE

DESCRIPTION

PRC ENTITY

Completed M&A

Alibaba Group in 2016 bought the controlling stake in Singapore's e-commerce company, Lazada Group, for $1 billion. Alibaba continued to raise its ownership stake from 51% to 83% with additional investments of $1 billion in June 2017 and $2 billion in March 2018.

Alibaba Group

Completed M&A

State-owned carrier CITIC Telecom in October 2017 acquired Linx Telecommunications, an Amsterdam-based telecom provider, for an undisclosed amount.

CITIC Telecom

Announced

Satellite Infrastructure

French satellite operator Eutelsat on 9 January 2018 signed a memorandum of understanding with China Unicom to cooperate on jointly developing commercial satellite communications in the Asia-Pacific region.

China Unicom

Under Construction

Satellite Infrastructure

China's Beidou Satellite Navigation System as of 2018 is undergoing trial operations in Karachi, Pakistan. Pakistan was the first country to deploy China's Beidou system.

China Great Wall Industry Co./Beijing Unistrong Science and Technology Co.

Completed

Satellite Infrastructure

A $300 million telemetry facility operated by the PLA's China Satellite Launch and Tracking Control General in Patagonia was completed in 2017. Construction was carried out by China Harbour Engineering Co. and the Xi'an Satellite Control Centre.

China Harbour Engineering Company/Xi'an Satellite Control Centre

Under

Smart City

Construction

Forest City is a $100 billion mixed development project being developed by Country Garden Holdings on four man-made Malaysian islands. Huawei, China Construction Steel Structure Corporation and Bank of China have signed on to help develop smart city technology.

Huawei Technologies/ China Construction Steel Structure Corporation/ Country Garden Holdings

Under

Smart City

Construction

This $100 billion project envisions reclaiming 407 hectares of land off the coast of Manila to create a `smart city' run by artificial intelligence. Reclamation work reportedly began in August 2017, while the whole project is expected to take 30 years to complete.

UAA Kinming Group Development Corporation

Under

Smart City

Construction

Huawei in January 2018 signed a memorandum Huawei

of understanding to develop the Duisburg

Technologies

Smart City.

Completed Smart City

Huawei in 2015 began working with the Punjab Safe Cities Authority (PSCA) to build a Smart and Safe City platform for Lahore. The project was inaugurated in January 2018.

Huawei Technologies

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Appendix A (Continued)

NAME
38 MAURITIUS SMART CITY

LOCATION Mauritius

ESTIMATED PROJECT VALUE ($)
N/A

39 BELGRADE SAFE CITY PHASE 1

Belgrade, Serbia

N/A

40 QUERETARO ICT FACILITIES

Queretaro, Mexico $1.5 billion

41 URBAN SAFETY

Quito, Ecuador

COMMAND AND

CONTROL CENTER (ECU

911)

$42.69 million

42 RIVAS-VACIAMADRID SMART CITY

Rivas-Vaciamadrid, N/A Spain

43 BONIFACIO GLOBAL CITY (BGC)

Manila, Philippines N/A

44 CITY OF EKURHULENI

Gauteng, South

N/A

(COE)

Africa

45 SMART ZAMBIA

Lusaka, Zambia

N/A

46 VENEZUELAN SMART ID Venezuela DATABASE

$70 million

47 GELSEN-NET SMART CITY

Gelsenkirchen,

N/A

Germany

STATUS

PROJECT TYPE

Under

Smart City

Construction

Completed Smart City

Completed Smart City Completed Smart City

Completed Smart City Completed Smart City Completed Smart City Completed Smart City Completed Smart City
Completed Smart City

DESCRIPTION

PRC ENTITY

Huawei is working to deploy its Safe City platform to assist the government of Mauritius in improving its emergency handling efficiency. The project is expected to be completed by the end of 2019.

Huawei Technologies

Huawei in 2016 signed a Safe City Strategic Cooperation Agreement with Serbia's Ministry of the Interior. The first phase of the project was completed in March 2018, and phase two has yet to be announced as of January 2019.

Huawei Technologies

Huawei in October 2014 began constructing four ICT facilities in the Mexican state of Queretaro. The project was completed in December 2015.

Huawei Technologies

The China National Electronics Import and Export Corporation (CEIEC) completed a $42.69 million laboratory to boost Ecuador's ability to fight crime and respond to emergencies utilizing Chinese technology. The second phase of development was completed in 2014.

China National Electronics Import and Export Corporation

Huawei provided the community of RivasVaciamadrid, a community outside Madrid, with its eLTE Broadband Trunking Solution.

Huawei Technologies

Huawei in 2014 was asked to provide Manila's Bonifacio Global City (BCG), part of a former Philippine Army base, with the company's Safe City platform, consisting of High-Definition Intelligent IP Cameras.

Huawei Technologies

The Ekurhuleni Municipality in 2016 announced that it was partnering with Huawei to improve the city's digital and broadband services.

Huawei Technologies

Huawei in 2016 completed the Zambian National Data Center, designed to ensure the security and continuity of the Zambian government's services and data.

Huawei Technologies

The Venezuelan government in 2017 hired ZTE to build a database and create a mobile payment system attached to "fatherland" cards, smart ID cards that have been linked by the government to food, health, and social programs.

Zhongxing Technologies (ZTE)

Huawei alongside Germany's GELSEN-NET provided the town of Gelsenkirchen with an ICT capability disclosure platform to enhance the town's digital connectivity.

Huawei Technologies

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Appendix A (Continued)

NAME
48 OMAN DIGITAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECT

LOCATION Oman

ESTIMATED PROJECT VALUE ($)
$239 million

STATUS

PROJECT TYPE

DESCRIPTION

PRC ENTITY

Under

Telecommunications

Construction

AIIB announced in December 2017 that it would provide a $239 million loan to Oman Broadband to rollout a fiber optic broadband cable network. The project is expected to be completed by 2021.

Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB)

49 GALAXY BACKBONE ICT Abuja, Nigeria PROJECT

$100 million

Under

Telecommunications

Construction

China and Nigeria signed a loan agreement to develop a galaxy backbone ICT network to improve communications. China EXIM Bank provided $100 million in loans, and the project is targeting a March 2019 completion date.

Export-Import Bank of China

*N/A = information was not available **Some fiber optic cable networks may have more than one landing point in a single country.

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Appendix B
China Unicom Global Network Capabilities Map

Source: China Unicom

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Appendix C
Timeline of PRC Technical Standards Proliferation

OCTOBER 2015: MAY 2017:
NOVEMBER 2017: DECEMBER 2017:

The Office of the Leading Group for Promoting the Construction of the "Belt and Road" project issues the "Joint Harmonization of Standards for `One Belt and One Road' Action Plan (20152017)".143 It is subsequently referred to as "Action Plan I."144
The PRC National Standards Administration Committee led 12 countries--Russia, Belarus, Serbia, Mongolia, Cambodia, Malaysia, Kazakhstan, Ethiopia, Greece, Switzerland, Turkey, and the Philippines in signing the "Joint Initiative on Strengthening Standards Cooperation and Promoting the Construction of the Belt and Road Initiative."145
The PRC Standardization Law is revised at the 30th meeting of the Standing Committee of the 12th National People's Congress.146
The PRC "Standardization Administration"147 holds a press conference to announce the "Harmonization of Standards for Jointly Constructing `One Belt and One Road' Action Plan (2018-2020)"148, which is referred to as "Action Plan II".149

143 "Joint Harmonization of Standards for `One Belt and One Road' Action Plan (2015-2017) [""2015--2017]," National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) official website, (October 22, 2015), accessed on January 24, 2019 at http://www. ndrc. gov. cn/gzdt/201510/t20151022_755473. html; and "Do you know the major policies of the `Belt and Road'? [`'], One Belt One Road Net [] rehosted on a "China SKU Center" website, (May 22, 2017), accessed on January 24, 2019 at http://www. ebrun. com/20170522/231917. shtml
144 "Harmonization of Standards for Jointly Constructing `One Belt and One Road' Action Plan (2018-2020) Announced [""2018-2020 ], General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the PRC [AQSIQ [] rehosted on the website of the Hubei provincial Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine [], (January 11, 2018), accessed on January 24, 2019 at http://hbzlw. cnhubei. com/jryw/201801/t4059297. shtml
145 "Five years of hard work: China's standards accelerate to the world [5]," People's Daily Overseas Edition rehosted on the CPC page of The People's Daily website, (July 3, 2017), accessed on January 25, 2019 at http://cpc. people. com. cn/n1/2017/0703/c64387-29378658. html or http://www. xinhuanet. com/silkroad/2017-07/03/c_129645859. htm
146 "Standardization Law of the PRC [198812292017114 ]," National People's Congress of the PRC official website, (November 4, 2017), accessed on January 24, 2019 at http://www. npc. gov. cn/npc/xinwen/2017-11/04/content_2031446. htm
147 PRC Standardization Administration [] official website, accessed on January 24, 2019 at http://www. sac. gov. cn/ (Text:   ")
148 "Harmonization of Standards for Jointly Constructing `One Belt and One Road' Action Plan (2018-2020) [""2018-2020]," PRC Standardization Administration [] rehosted on the official website of the State Council Information Office of the PRC, (December 22, 2017), accessed on January 24, 2019 at http://www. scio. gov. cn/xwfbh/xwbfbh/wqfbh/37601/39274/xgzc39280/Document/1641459/1641459. htm
149 "Harmonization of Standards for Jointly Constructing `One Belt and One Road' Action Plan (2018-2020) Announced [""2018-2020 ]" General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the PRC (AQSIQ [] rehosted on the website of the Hubei provincial Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine [], (January 11, 2018), accessed on January 25, 2019 at http://hbzlw. cnhubei. com/jryw/201801/t4059297. shtml

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Appendix C (Continued)
DECEMBER 2017: AUGUST 2018: AUGUST 2018: AUGUST 2018:
SEPTEMBER 2018:

Beijing secures agreements from at least six countries--Laos, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Thailand, Turkey, and United Arab Emirates--to promote international standardization cooperation relating to broadband access and quality, e-commerce, technological skills training, and information and communications technology investment promotion.150
The State Council issues "Guiding Opinion on Strengthening Standardization Work in Nuclear Power".151 The "Opinion" stipulates that by 2022, the proportion of domestic PRC nuclear power projects adopting indigenous nuclear power standards will be greatly increased, the international influence of China's nuclear power standards will be greatly enhanced, and the degree of foreign recognition will be significantly improved.
Beijing Chaoyang District participates in the Action Plan II "National Standard Foreign Languages Program" which aims to promote the international recognition of the PRC's technical standards through translation of those standards into foreign languages.152
"The Shaanxi Province leading group office for promotion "OBOR" construction and the Shaanxi Provincial Quality Supervision Bureau jointly issued the "Joint Harmonization of Standards for `One Belt, One Road' Action Plan of Shaanxi Province (2018-2020)" to deploy six major areas of cooperation, to include: application of Chinese standards overseas, promotion of international production capacity collaboration, improvement of scientific and technological innovation capabilities, assistance in the development of cultural tourism, improvement of the development capabilities of standardized services, and strengthening of policy support.153 154
Zhejiang province publishes and implements "Joint Harmonization of Standards for `One Belt, One Road' Action Plan of Zhejiang Province (2018-2020). "155 The Zhejiang Provincial Government, under direction from the NDRC National Internet Information Office, established the Digital (Online) Silk Road International Industrial Alliance ["DSR Industrial Alliance;"  ].156

150 "7 countries jointly agreed to initiate a new chapter in `Digital Silk Road' cooperation [7 "" ]," Xinhua News [], (December 3, 2017), accessed on December 17, 2018 at http://www. xinhuanet. com/world/2017-12/03/c_1122050732. htm
151 "Office of the State Council Guiding Opinion on Strengthening Standardization Work in Nuclear Power [  201871]," Official Website of the Government of the PRC, accessed on January 25, 2019 at http://www. gov. cn/zhengce/content/2018-08/09/content_5312785. htm
152 "Chaoyang District actively participates in the foreign language work for "Harmonization of Standards for Jointly Constructing `One Belt and One Road' Action Plan' [ "]," Beijing Municipal Government Information Publicity Webpage [], (undated), accessed on January 25, 2019 at http://zfxxgk. beijing. gov. cn/11E028/zwxw52j/2018-08/24/content_2ffd43229fc04d8eb073509e0669e 699. shtml
153 "XISU participates in the "Joint Harmonization of Standards for `One Belt, One Road' Action Plan of Shaanxi Province [""  ]," Xi'an International Studies University (XISU [], (August 15, 2018), observed 24 January 2019 at root URL http://www. xisu. edu. cn
154 For the full text of the Shaanxi document, see: "'Going Out' Public Service Platform": "Joint Harmonization of Standards for `One Belt, One Road' Action Plan of Shaanxi Province (2018-2020) ["" 2018-2020]," Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM), (August 15, 2018), accessed on January 25, 2019 at http://fec. mofcom. gov. cn/article/fwydyl/zgzx/201808/20180802775740. shtml and http://www. chinagove. com/news/17/2018/0815/19705. html
155 "Joint Harmonization of Standards for `One Belt, One Road' Action Plan of Zhejiang Province (2018-2020) [""2018-2020 ]," Zhejiang Provincial Development and Reform Commission, (September 7, 2018), accessed on January 25, 2019 at http://www. zjdpc. gov. cn/art/2018/9/7/ art_719_1749049. html
156 "Digital Economy and Digital Silk Road International Conference Propose Joining Hands to Construct Digital Silk Road [  ]," General Office of the Zhejiang Provincial Government website, (September 19, 2018), accessed on January 2, 2019 at http://www. zj. gov. cn/art/2018/9/19/art_41146_2291184. html (Original text: "")

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Appendix C (Continued)
NOVEMBER 2018:

The Science and Technology Department of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT)--aiming to export PRC technological standards in ICT, cybersecurity, AI, robotics, smart technologies and applications, as well as new energy technologies and explosives, and "industrial communications"--issues implementation guidance for the 2018-2020 standards action plan in support of OBOR, entitled: "Implementation Opinions of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology on the Harmonization of Industrial Communication Industry Standards in Service of Construction of the "Belt and Road."157

157 See "industrial communications" implementation guidance for the 2018-2020 standards action plan in support of OBOR issued by the Science and Technology Department
of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT): "Implementation Opinions of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology on the Harmonization of Industrial Communication Industry Standards in Service of Construction of the "Belt and Road" ["" ]," Key Work [] webpage of MIIT's official website, (November 12, 2018), accessed on January 10, 2019 at http://www. miit. gov. cn/n1146290/n4388791/ c6480447/content. html

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Appendix D
Timeline of Selected DSR-Related Events and Announcements

MARCH 2015: MARCH 2015: JULY 2015: SEPTEMBER 2015:
SEPTEMBER 2015:

NDRC-MOFA-MOFCOM joint document entitled "Vision and Action to Promote the Construction of the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road"158 calls for "jointly promoting the construction of communication trunk networks such as cross-border optical cables to improve international communication, interoperability level, and a smooth `Online Silk Road'."
PRC's 2015 OBOR White Paper calls for the "construction of cross-border optical cables and other communications trunk line networks" and improving satellite information passageways to create an "Information Silk Road."159
Then-Deputy Director of the Cyberspace Administration of China [] Ren Xianliang160 [] notes at the 15th China Internet Media Forum that many of the PRC's OBOR partners face challenges in moving traditional industries into the 21st century. Ren said that by addressing these technological gaps, Beijing is effectively accelerating the integration of Internet of Things (IoT), big data, satellite communications, fiber optic cables, and cloud computing across OBOR countries and beyond.161
CAC's then-chairman Lu Wei [] at the China-ASEAN Information Harbor Forum notes the increasing importance and power of digital economy to China's growth.162 Plans and accomplishments listed by Lu and others at the 2015 Forum include deepening of cyberspace cooperation and development with ASEAN, a special PRC government fund for internet and telecommunications infrastructure to link China to ASEAN, PRC-ASEAN talks on an upgraded version of the China-ASEAN Free Trade Area, and China Unicom's construction of an overseas submarine cable link with Myanmar.163
Deutsche Telekom press release announces Huawei partnership with Deutsche Telekom and touts project's role in advancing DSR links.164

158 "Vision and Action on Jointly Building the Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road [21 ]," NDRC [], MOFA [], MOFCOM [], issued by the State Council [], (March 2015), accessed on January 14, 2018 at http://www. mofcom. gov. cn/article/i/dxfw/jlyd/201601/20160101243342. shtml
159 "Vision and Actions on Jointly Building Silk Road Economic Belt and 21-st Century Maritime Silk Road," National Development and Reform Commission website, (March 28, 2015), accessed on December 31, 2018 at http://en. ndrc. gov. cn/newsrelease/201503/t20150330_669367. html
160 As of July 2017, Ren Xianliang is concurrently the Deputy Director of the Office of the Central Cyberspace Affairs Commission and Deputy Director of the National Internet Information Office under the Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC). For more information, see: "Ren Xialiang: Resume" [: ], Cyberspace Administration of China [], (undated), accessed on December 3, 2018 at http://www. cac. gov. cn/bgs_rxl1. htm
161 "One Belt, One Road, Network First--The 15th China Internet Media Forum [ -- -- 15]," Xinhua News [], (July 17, 2017), accessed on December 3, 2018 at http://www. xinhuanet. com/zgjx/2015-07/17/c_134421066. htm
162 "China-ASEAN Information Harbor Forum September 13-14, 2015" China Daily, (September 2015), accessed on December 11, 2018 at http://www. chinadaily. com. cn/business/ informationharbor/index. html
163 "China-ASEAN Information Harbor Forum September 13-14, 2015" China Daily, (September 2015), accessed on December 11, 2018 at http://www. chinadaily. com. cn/business/ informationharbor/index. html
164 "Huawei and Deutsche Telekom work on "Digital Silk Road," Deutsche Telekom website, (September 14, 2015), accessed on January 14, 2019 at https://www. telekom. com/ en/media/media-information/archive/huawei-and-deutsche-telekom-work-on--digital-silk-road--362052

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Appendix D (Continued)
MARCH 2016:
MARCH 2016: MARCH 2016: APRIL 2016: AUGUST 2016: DECEMBER 2016:

PRC's 13th Five-Year Plan [] outlines specific priorities for building and improving fiber optic networks and global telecommunications services, accelerating the deployment of PRC-built satellites, and promoting the development and application of next-generation information technologies (IT) such as fifthgeneration (5G) mobile communications, cloud computing, autonomous operating systems, and artificial intelligence (AI).165
Huawei press release announcing partnership with Finland's Cinia touts project's role in advancing DSR links.166
Kuang-Chi Group connected HyalRoute Communications Group (HyalRoute; )167, a leading provider of ICT infrastructure in Asia Pacific, initiates agreements leading to construction and operation of nationwide fiber optic networks in both Myanmar and Cambodia.168
UNESCAP and China signed the "Intention Letter of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China and the UN Economic and Social Commission for the Promotion of Regional Interconnection and the `Belt and Road Initiative'" (the first "One Belt, One Road" cooperation document signed by China and international organizations).169
China Unicom unveiled its Global Center in Hong Kong, the first and largest overseas integrated telecommunications facility to function "as an important information infrastructure hub of `One Belt, One Road'."170
ZTE acquired a 48% stake in Turkish ICT systems integrator and software solutions firm Netas Telecommunications, a major architect of Turkey's digital future.171

165 Section 25 of "Outline of the Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of the People's Republic of China [ ]", State Council of the People's Republic of China [], (March 17, 2016), accessed on November 30, 2018 at http:// www. gov. cn/xinwen/2016-03/17/content_5054992. htm
166 "Huawei and Deutsche Telekom work on "Digital Silk Road," Deutsche Telekom website, (September 14, 2015), accessed on January 14, 2019 at https://www. telekom. com/ en/media/media-information/archive/huawei-and-deutsche-telekom-work-on--digital-silk-road--362052; and "Cinia selects Huawei to Build Direct Digital Silk Road between Asia and Europe," Huawei website, (March 16, 2016), accessed on January 14, 2019 at https://carrier. huawei. com/en/relevant-information/all-cloud-network/build-directdigital-silk-road
167 HyalRoute is a member of Shenzhen-based Kuang-Chi Group's "Global Community of Innovation. " A military-civil fusion enterprise, Kuang-Chi supports PLA RD&A programs, including programs on stealth materials and near space ISR.
168 "Cambodia grants rights to Chinese firm to build submarine cables, landing station," People's Daily, (March 2, 2016), accessed on January 25, 2019 at http://en. people. cn/ n3/2016/0302/c90883-9024154. html; and "Government signs $70m deal for submarine internet cable," The Cambodian Daily, (March 3, 2016), accessed on January 25, 2019 at https://www. cambodiadaily. com/news/government-signs-70m-deal-for-submarine-internet-cable-109325/; and "Cambodia signs US$70 million deal of submarine cable construction," Agence Kampuchea Presse (AKP), (March 4, 2016), accessed on January 25, 2019 at http://www. akp. gov. kh/wp-content/uploads/wp-post-to-pdf-cache/1/ cambodia-signs-us70-million-deal-of-submarine-cable-construction. pdf; and "World Bank's MIGA backs $100m, 4,500km fibre optic rollout," Frontier Myanmar, (January 31, 2017), accessed on January 25, 2019 at https://frontiermyanmar. net/en/world-banks-miga-backs-100m-4500km-fibre-optic-rollout; and "HyalRoute Fiber Optic Cable Network," Private Participation in Infrastructure Database," The World Bank, (2017), accessed on January 25, 2019 at https://ppi. worldbank. org/snapshots/project/HyalRoute-Fiber-Optic-Cable-Network-9164
169 "Do you know the major policies of the `Belt and Road'? [`'], One Belt One Road Net [] rehosted on a "China SKU Center" website, (May 22, 2017), accessed on January 24, 2019 at http://www. ebrun. com/20170522/231917. shtml
170 "China Unicom (Hong Kong) Global Center Grand Opening," China Unicom website, (August 16, 2016), accessed on January 14, 2019 at http://www. chinaunicom. com. sg/ news-detail/7/
171 "ZTE to acquire 48% stake in Netas to support growth in Turkey and Eurasia," ZTE website, (December 6, 2016), accessed January 15, 2019 at https://www. zte. com. cn/global/ about/press-center/news/20180600001/201807140803/201612ma/1206

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Appendix D (Continued)
JANUARY 2017:
APRIL 2017: APRIL 2017: APRIL 2017:

MIIT China Academy of Information and Communications Technology (CAICT) report pronounces that the first priority of DSR construction is to solve the problem of infrastructure connectivity.172 The first steps are: 1) open the "Belt and Road" information channel, connecting the land information channels of Pakistan, Myanmar and other countries to the Indian Ocean and Russia to Central and Eastern Europe and 2) promote the construction of submarine cables for the Americas, Europe, Southeast Asia and Africa, and improve the maritime information channel; 3) encourage enterprises to deploy application facilities such as data centers and cloud computing platforms in the node cities along the "Belt and Road". The second step is to accelerate the internationalization of the Beidou satellite navigation system and its application industry in conjunction with the "Belt and Road" countries, improve several Beidou overseas application demonstration projects, and enhance the international service capabilities of Beidou Navigation."
Alibaba promotes the construction of the DSR through its "Global E-Commerce Platform" (eWTP), which has been launched in Kuala Lumpur and Hangzhou, as well as expansion of its logistics capabilities across OBOR countries.173
PRC telecom ZTE publicizes smart city project in Bangladesh.174
China Telecom [] plans to invest at least $1 billion over the next 3-5 years to construct a major regional information highway interconnecting OBOR countries. This effort will focus on implementing three regional strategies, the Greater Eurasia Strategy [], New Mekong River Strategy [], and New Africa Strategy [], as well as four key pilot projects.175176177178

172 "Create `Online Silk Road' and Promote the Development of `One Belt, One Road'----Part Four of the Interpretation of `The National Informatization Plan of the 13th FiveYear Plan' [""""----""]," Website of the China Academy of Information and Communications Technology (CAICT) of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT), (January 5, 2017), accessed on January 7, 2019 at http://www. caict. ac. cn/kxyj/ caictgd/201804/t20180428_159428. htm
173 "Alibaba promotes the construction of the `Digital Silk Road' [ ""]," Xinhua News [], (April 18, 2017), accessed on December 17, 2018 at http://www. xinhuanet. com/world/2017-04/18/c_1120832453. htm
174 Zhang Ying, "Transforming Dhaka into a Smart City," ZTE website, (undated), accessed on January 15, 2019 at https://www. zte. com. cn/global/about/magazine/zte-technologies/2017/4/en_737/464727
175 "China Telecom's "One Belt, One Road" Plan: Investing $1 billion to Build Information Silk Road [""10""]," People's Daily website, (April 26, 2017), accessed on January 9, 2019 at http://tc. people. com. cn/n1/2017/0426/c183008-29237851. html; and "China Telecom Practices One Belt, One Road; Global Layout and Construction of the Information Silk Road ["" ""]," China Telecom website, (May 11, 2017), accessed on January 9, 2019 at http://www. chinatelecom. com. cn/news/06/ydyl/xw/201706/t20170621_33927. html
176 "China Telecom's "One Belt, One Road" Plan: Investing $1 billion to Build Information Silk Road [""10""]," People's Daily website, (April 26, 2017), accessed on January 9, 2019 at http://tc. people. com. cn/n1/2017/0426/c183008-29237851. html; and "China Telecom Practices One Belt, One Road; Global Layout and Construction of the Information Silk Road [""""]," China Telecom website, (May 11, 2017), accessed on January 9, 2019 at http://www. chinatelecom. com. cn/news/06/ydyl/xw/201706/t20170621_33927. html (Original text:  ). Plans to construct a Eurasian Information Silk Road appear to have been outlined by China Telecom around 2006, when it set up China Telecom (Europe) Co. in London. The Eurasian Information Silk Road includes the Euro-Asia Network Solution consisting of six fiber optic terrestrial cables and interconnected POPs from Asia to Europe. The land line was constructed in cooperation with Russian telecom operators. See: "Euro-Asia Network Solution," China Telecom Europe website, (undated), accessed on January 10, 2019 at http://cteurope. net/wp-content/uploads/ ChinaTelecom_Euro-Asia-network-solution. pdf; and Sun Yaping, "Building the Eurasian Information Silk Road []," China Radio International website, (October 17, 2011), accessed on January 10, 2019 at http://news. cri. cn/gb/27824/2011/10/17/110s3404654. htm
177 "China Telecom's "One Belt, One Road" Plan: Investing $1 billion to Build Information Silk Road [""10""]," People's Daily website, (April 26, 2017), accessed on January 9, 2019 at http://tc. people. com. cn/n1/2017/0426/c183008-29237851. html; and "China Telecom Practices One Belt, One Road; Global Layout and Construction of the Information Silk Road [""""]," China Telecom website, (May 11, 2017), accessed on January 9, 2019 at http://www. chinatelecom. com. cn/news/06/ydyl/xw/201706/t20170621_33927. html (Original text:  )
178 "China Telecom's "One Belt, One Road" Plan: Investing $1 billion to Build Information Silk Road [""10""]," People's Daily website, (April 26, 2017), accessed on January 9, 2019 at http://tc. people. com. cn/n1/2017/0426/c183008-29237851. html; and "China Telecom Practices One Belt, One Road; Global Layout and Construction of the Information Silk Road ["" ""]," China Telecom website, (May 11, 2017), accessed on January 9, 2019 at http://www. chinatelecom. com. cn/news/06/ydyl/xw/201706/t20170621_33927. html (Original text:  )

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Appendix D (Continued)
APRIL 2017: MAY 2017: MAY 2017: MAY 2017: MAY 2017:
JULY 2017:
JULY 2017: NOVEMBER 2017:

China Mobile announces that it lowered roaming charges for OBOR countries, which would "facilitate Chinese enterprises' investment and construction along the Belt and Road."179
China Mobile describes its role in the construction of telecommunications infrastructure and cross-border land and submarine fiber optic cables, as well as its acquisition of telecommunications companies in Pakistan and Thailand to highlight its efforts towards creating an "information and economic corridor."180
ZTE's and Huawei's construction of fiber optic cables in Pakistan and Afghanistan publicized.181
Joint communique from the "Belt and Road Forum" calls for promoting digital infrastructure connecting OBOR countries to "put in place an international infrastructure network over time."182
PRC undersea technology equipment and defense contractor Zhongtian Technology Submarine Cable Co. ("ZTT"; )183--which has participated in the construction of all underwater observation networks in China and specializes in underwater network design, equipment manufacturing, construction and maintenance--touts its contribution to Military-Civil Fusion (MCF) objectives."184
CPC General Secretary Xi Jinping during a visit to Moscow said that China and Russia are actively promoting construction of "One Belt, One Road" in cooperation with the Eurasian Economic Union, and that the two sides will jointly develop and utilize Arctic waterways to create an "Ice Silk Road [ ]."185
DSR appeared prominently in the 15th China Online Media Forum keynote presentation in Zhanjiang.186
Inspur Group, a PRC cloud computing and big data services provider, along with Cisco, IBM, Diebold Nixdorf, and Ericsson, formed the "One Belt, One Road" Digital Economy Strategic Alliance ["" ] in the Inspur Jinan Science and Technology Park.187

179 Meng Jie, "China Mobile to cut roaming charges along Belt and Road," Xinhua News, (April 26, 2017), accessed January 14, 2019 at http://www. xinhuanet. com/english/201704/26/c_136238169. htm
180 "Briefing on China Mobile's Participation in Jointly Building the "Belt and Road," China Mobile Communications Corporation, (May 8, 2017), accessed on December 17, 2018 at http://www. china. com. cn/zhibo/zhuanti/ch-xinwen/2017-05/08/content_40767089. htm
181 "Afghanistan and China Sign Optic Fiber Agreement," Regional Economic Cooperation Conference of Afghanistan website, (April 26, 2017), accessed January 15, 2019 at http://recca. af/?p=2387; and "ZTE Broadens Digital Silk Road [""]," People's Daily, (May 18, 2017), accessed January 15, 2019 at http://paper. people. com. cn/. . . /nw. D110000renmrb_20170518_3-13. htm
182 "Full text: Joint communique of leaders roundtable of Belt and Road forum," Xinhua News, (May 15, 2017), accessed on December 31, 2018 at http://www. xinhuanet. com// english/2017-05/15/c_136286378. htm
183 ZTT is a National Torch Program key high-tech enterprise [] located in the national level Nantong Economic and Technology Development Zone. It also leads the 863 Programs on deep sea ROVs [ROV] and armored cables []. See company website at: http://zthl. chinaztt. cn/
184 "Zhongtian Technology advances into the 10,000-meter deep-sea area []," Official website of "Communication Industry News" [ ], a publication managed by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT)], (May 19, 2017), accessed on January 9, 2019 at http://www. ccidcom. com/ company/20170519/yW3WLEFRayB7zkn7y14w6vmp6cfn8. html
185 "July 4, 2017: Xi Jinping: Creating the "Ice Silk Road [201774""]," Belt and Road Portal, (July 4, 2017), accessed on January 14, 2019 at https://www. yidaiyilu. gov. cn/slxwzy/20751. htm. (Original text: "" " ")
186 "Ren Xianliang delivered a keynote speech: Building a `Digital Silk Road' [ ""]," China Daily [], (July 17, 2015), accessed on December 17, 2018 at http://forum2015. chinadaily. com. cn/2015-07/17/content_21308339. htm
187 Li Ruan, "One Belt, One Road" Digital Economy Strategic Alliance Established ["]," China Securities Journal website, (November 2, 2017), accessed on January 8, 2019 at http://cs. com. cn/xwzx/201711/t20171102_5550065. html; and "Lu Wei Attends One Belt, One Road Digital Economy Strategic Alliance Establishment Ceremony []," Ministry of Commerce website, (November 3, 2017), accessed on January 8, 2019 at http:// www. mofcom. gov. cn/article/difang/201711/20171102665974. shtml

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Appendix D (Continued)
FEBRUARY 2018: MARCH 2018: JUNE 2018:
JUNE 2018: SEPTEMBER 2018: SEPTEMBER 2018:

"Xinhua Silkroad"--an OBOR-focused website managed by the PRC's official wire service Xinhua-- publicizes that DSR is also driving PRC expansion into the Arctic in a report rehosted from the "Australian Roy International Policy Institute."188
Ministry of Finance-controlled CITIC Group [] acquires Netherlands-based Linx Telecommunications becoming "one of the first Asian ICT service provider to own PoPs with extensive coverage in countries along with "One Belt One Road" route" providing "a first-mover advantage in "Digital Silk Road"" and foundation for seizing opportunities in Russia, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia.189
NDRC's International Cooperation Center (ICC) Director Huang Yong () in June 2018 gave the keynote address at the China Urban Credit Construction Summit in Fuzhou where he discussed the significance of the ICC's Foreign Credit Identification System [], a big data platform that may allow the PRC government to assign credit ratings to foreign businesses based on their willingness to abide by PRC law. He noted that this system, alongside other PRC-built social credit monitoring systems, will gradually be applied to OBOR projects to assist both PRC and international organizations in assessing risk.190
MOFCOM's China Service Trade Guidance Network in June 2018 released the first cross-border e-commerce innovation research report in Hangzhou, demonstrating the positive impacts and developments in China's e-commerce industry. According to MOFCOM, Hangzhou's foreign e-commerce transactions increased by 23. 8% from January to May of 2018.191
NDRC and China Development Bank announce the signing of the "Comprehensive Support for Developing the Digital Economy and Developmental Finance Cooperation Agreement" [ ] pledging over RMB 100 billion ($14. 57 billion) in investment over the next five years to support big data, IoT, cloud computing, construction of new smart cities, and overall construction of the digital silk road.192
Alibaba announces stepped up efforts in Russia, announcing the formation of a new social commerce joint venture with The Russian Direct Investment Fund--Russia's sovereign wealth fund--MegaoFon, and Mail. Ru to accelerate Russia's digital economy.193

188 "Arctic submarine cable to build data `Silk Road'[""]," Xinhua Silkroad (, an OBOR-focused website managed by the PRC's official wire service Xinhua) attributed to the Australian Roy International Policy Institute, (February 7, 2018), accessed on January 7, 2019 at http://silkroad. news. cn/2018/0207/83602. shtml
189 "Annual Report 2017," CITIC Telecommunications International Holdings Limits, Hong Kong Stock Exchange, (March 28, 2018), accessed on January 13, 2019 at http://www3. hkexnews. hk/listedco/listconews/SEHK/2018/0328/LTN20180328660. pdf. Following the acquisition, Linx Telecommunications was consolidated into CPC Europe Group whose virtual private network services, TrueCONNECT MPLS VPN covers more than 130 countries and regions.
190 "Constructing a new pattern of `Belt and Road' credit work to create a digital silk road for the new era [ ""  ]," International Cooperation Center [], (June 11, 2018), accessed on December 12, 2018 at http://www. icc-ndrc. org. cn/news_detail. jsp?id=600962
191 "The first `cross-border e-commerce innovation research report' was released in Hangzhou []," China Service Trade Guidance Network [], (June 29, 2018), accessed on December 13, 2018 at http://tradeinservices. mofcom. gov. cn/article/news/gnxw/201806/64258. html
192 "NDRC and China Development Bank sign Comprehensive Support for Developing the Digital Economy and Developmental Finance Cooperation Agreement [ ]," PRC State Council website, (September 19, 2018), accessed on January 2, 2019 at http://www. gov. cn/xinwen/2018-09/19/content_5323492. htm
193 "RDIF, Alibaba Group, MegaFon, and Mail. Ru Group Launch New Social Commerce Joint Venture in Russia and the CIS," Megaon website, (September 11, 2018), accessed on January 15, 2019 at https://corp. megafon. com/investors/news/capital_market_releases/20180911-0936. html

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Appendix D (Continued)
SEPTEMBER 2018:
NOVEMBER 2018: NOVEMBER 2018: DECEMBER 2018:

The Zhejiang Provincial Government, under direction from the NDRC National Internet Information Office, established the Digital (Online) Silk Road International Industrial Alliance ["DSR Industrial Alliance;"  ] to serve as a mechanism for jointly "promoting the development of the digital economy, constructing the digital silk road, and promoting the digital economy between OBOR countries. "194 To date, more than 40 companies have joined the DSR Industrial Alliance including Alibaba, Tencent, WeChat, iFlytek, Sugon, Inspur, Baidu, Bilibili, China Electronic Technology Group, and Zhejiang Robot Industry Group.195
MIIT S&T Department issues implementation guidance for the 2018-2020 standards action plan in support of OBOR.196
MIIT China Academy of Information and Communications Technology (CAICT) senior researchers propose actions to accelerate the "going out" of PRC ICT firms and construction of the digital silk road.197
China-Europe Digital Association (ChinaEU; ) Chairman Lu Yiji () stressed that China and the European Union (EU) must collaborate to promote the development of next-generation technologies. Mr. Lu highlighted that companies such as Alibaba and Huawei are actively seeking new markets in Europe.198

194 "Digital Economy and Digital Silk Road International Conference Propose Joining Hands to Construct Digital Silk Road [  ]," General Office of the Zhejiang Provincial Government website, (September 19, 2018), accessed on January 2, 2019 at http://www. zj. gov. cn/art/2018/9/19/art_41146_2291184. html (Original text: "")
195 "Digital Economy and Digital Silk Road International Conference Propose Joining Hands to Construct Digital Silk Road [  ]," General Office of the Zhejiang Provincial Government website, (September 19, 2018), accessed on January 2, 2019 at http://www. zj. gov. cn/art/2018/9/19/art_41146_2291184. html (Original text: "")
Also, see: and "Zhejiang Robot Industry Group invited to be founding member of the Digital (Online) Silk Road International Industrial Alliance [ ]," Guangxi Tus-Holding Co. website, (September 21, 2018), accessed on January 2, 2019 at http://www. gxtuscity. com/news/group/20180921652. html
196 See "industrial communications" implementation guidance for the 2018-2020 standards action plan in support of OBOR issued by the Science and Technology Department of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT): "Implementation Opinions of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology on the Harmonization of Industrial Communication Industry Standards in Service of Construction of the "Belt and Road" ["" ]," Key Work [] webpage of MIIT's official website, (November 12, 2018), accessed on January 10, 2019 at http://www. miit. gov. cn/n1146290/n4388791/ c6480447/content. html
197 Chen Hui and Dong Jianjun, "Accelerating the Promotion of the One Belt, One Road Information and Communication Industry Going Out ["" ]," CAICT website, (November 14, 2018), accessed on January 9, 2018 at http://www. caict. ac. cn/kxyj/caictgd/201811/t20181114_188712. htm
198 "People from all walks of life in China and Italy: The Sino-Italian `Digital Silk Road' has broad prospects for construction [ ""  ]," Economic Daily [], (October 30, 2017), accessed on December 12, 2018 at https://www. yidaiyilu. gov. cn/xwzx/hwxw/32098. htm; and "The Embassy in Italy hosted the `Silk Road Digital Interconnection' Round Table [ " · " ]," Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China [], (October 26, 2017), accessed on December 12, 2018 at https://www. fmprc. gov. cn/web/zwbd_673032/gzhd_673042/t1504740. shtml

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